||English Longitudinal Study of Ageing: Waves 0-5, 1998-2011
|| English Longitudinal Study of Ageing
|| NatCen Social Research
Marmot, M., University College London. International Institute for Society and Health
Oldfield, Z., Institute for Fiscal Studies
Clemens, S., NatCen Social Research
Blake, M., NatCen Social Research
Phelps, A., NatCen Social Research
Nazroo, J., University of Manchester. School of Social Sciences
Steptoe, A., University College London. UCL Research Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
Rogers, N., University College London. UCL Research Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
Banks, J., Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of Manchester School of Social Sciences
NatCen Social Research
National Institute of Aging
Department of Health
Department for Work and Pensions
Office for National Statistics
Department for Transport
HM Revenue and Customs
Department for Communities and Local Government
Other than the principal investigator and the scientific team, the following people have been involved in the development, data preparation and/or analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA):
ELSA Advisory Committee:
- Lisa Calderwood, Hayley Cheshire, Laura Conway, Kate Taylor, Michelle Lee, Rebecca Taylor, Susan Nunn, Kelly Ward, Dan Philo, Elizabeth Hacker, Natasha Wood, David Hussey, Ian Simpson, Rachel Whalley, and Shaun Scoles (NatCen Social Research) and Carli Lessof (previous principal investigator, formerly of NatCen Social Research)
- Maria Casanova, Zoe Oldfield, Gemma Tetlow and Carl Emmerson (Institute for Fiscal Studies)
- Edlira Gjonja, Martin Hyde, Mary Janevic, Saffron Karlsen, Meena Kumari, Anne McMunn, Mike Wadsworth, Elizabeth Breeze, Panayotes Demakakos, Faiza Tabassum, Paola Zaninotto, Cesar d'Oliveira and Mary Pierce (University College London)
- Brenda McWilliams and David Melzer (University of Cambridge)
- Nicholas Steel (University of East Anglia)
- David Blane (Imperial College London)
- Mike Hurd and Jim Smith (RAND, California)
- Beth Soldo (University of Pennsylvania)
- Bob Wallace (University of Iowa)
- Bob Willis (University of Michigan)
External members of the ELSA Advisory Committee include:
- Baroness Sally Greengross (Chair), House of Lords
- Mike Bury, Department of Social and Political Science, Royal Holloway, University of London
- Emily Grundy, Centre for Population Studies, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
- Ruth Hancock, Department of Health and Human Sciences, University of Essex
- Sarah Harper, Oxford Institute of Ageing, University of Oxford
- Tom Kirkwood, School of Clinical Medical Sciences Gerontology, University of Newcastle
- Ian Philp, Sheffield Institute for Studies on Ageing, University of Sheffield
- Tom Ross (retired), Aon Consulting
- Jacqui Smith, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan
- Anthea Tinker, Institute of Gerontology, Kings College London
- Christina Victor, School of Health and Social Care, University of Reading
- Richard Disney, University of Nottingham
- Carol Propper, Imperial College Business School
- Alan Walker, Department of Sociological Studies, University of Sheffield
Half the funding for ELSA is provided by UK government departments. Those funding the first five years of the study included the Department of Health, the Department for Work and Pensions, the Office for National Statistics, the Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions (DTLR), the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), the Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), the Department for Education and Skills (DES), and HM Treasury. After this period, DTLR, DCMS, DES and HM Treasury were replaced as funders by HM Revenue and Customs, and Communities and Local Government. The other half of the funding for the study is provided by the National Institute on Aging, in the USA.
The depositor has supplied the following text for users as an example of the acknowledgement that should be used in publications resulting from use of the ELSA study:
"The data were made available through the UK Data Archive (UKDA). ELSA was developed by a team of researchers based at the NatCen Social Research, University College London and the Institute for Fiscal Studies. The data were collected by NatCen Social Research. The funding is provided by the National Institute of Aging in the United States, and a consortium of UK government departments co-ordinated by the Office for National Statistics. The developers and funders of ELSA and the Archive do not bear any responsibility for the analyses or interpretations presented here."
Details of the bibliographic citation to be used may be found in the file 'UKDA_Study_5050_Information.htm' that accompanies the dataset.
English Longitudinal Study of Ageing - Major studies
Social indicators and quality of life - Society and culture
Elderly - Social stratification and groupings
|The ELSA study is a longitudinal survey of ageing and quality of life among older people that explores the dynamic relationships between health and functioning, social networks and participation, and economic position as people plan for, move into and progress beyond retirement. The main objectives of ELSA are to:
The current deposit comprises Waves 0-5 of the survey. Further information may be found on the Institute for Fiscal Studies: ELSA and Natcen Social Research: ELSA web pages.
- construct six waves of accessible and well-documented panel data;
- provide these data in a convenient and timely fashion to the scientific and policy research community;
- describe health trajectories, disability and healthy life expectancy in a representative sample of the English population aged 50 and over;
- examine the relationship between economic position and health;
- investigate the determinants of economic position in older age;
- describe the timing of retirement and post-retirement labour market activity; and
- understand the relationships between social support, household structure and the transfer of assets.
Joint ELSA/SHARE database:
Users may request access to the ELSA portion of the data from a project to harmonise ELSA Wave 2 and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Wave 1 (both 2004) data, undertaken by Valeria Bordon at the University of Mannheim. Please Get in touch for further details. The SHARE portion of this joint database can be accessed via the SHARE Project Research Data Centre
Latest edition of ELSA:
For the 20th edition (October 2013), new versions of the Wave 1-5 core datasets were deposited. Government Office Region (GOR) variable was added; incorrect derivations of two Cognitive function derived variables (cfmeind and cfind) for Wave 3 were amended, and one 'idauniq' case amended in Wave 5. The Wave 0 dataset was updated to include cohorts 3 and 4 and the Wave 0 User Guide amended accordingly. The Index file was updated to include the 'mortwave' variable, 11 duplicate cases were removed and the household ID variable 'idahhw0' was added to the new cohort 3 and 4 cases from the Wave 0 file. See study READ file for a full edition history.
For a full list of topics covered across the ELSA waves, see the all waves user guide.
The ELSA study held at the UK Data Archive currently includes:
- Index file:
includes details of all age-eligible individuals within households identified from the HSE 1998, 1999 and 2001. It also includes all ineligible individuals living in the same households as eligible individuals. Variables comprise respondent status and some mortality information, as well as analytical identifiers
- Wave 0 (1998, 1999 and 2001):
data for ELSA sample members who took part in the three different HSE studies used to construct the original ELSA sample. Three of the files include data for those variables which were measured at each of the three HSE study years (1998, 1999 and 2001). The fourth Wave 0 file comprises common variables included in all three survey years for all respondents.
- Wave 1: The Wave 1 core data file contains information obtained from the individual interviews and self-completion questionnaires. Further data elements included in separate files for Wave 1 are: Pension Wealth Derived Variables, derived from information on individuals' current and past circumstances from the Work and Pensions module of Wave 1; Financial Derived Variables, comprising derived summary variables for income and wealth (an accompanying spreadsheet is included in the documentation that matches the derived variables to their source variables and provides further information).
- Wave 2: The ELSA Wave 2 interview covered a wide range of topics, which comprise the Wave 2 core data file. It was very similar to the questionnaire used in Wave 1, although every module was reviewed to ensure that it would provide data that measured change over time. Further data elements included in separate files for Wave 2 are: data from the Nurse visit including blood tests and various anthropometric/physical measurements; Mortgage data, manipulated into a series of 'loops' to facilitate easier analysis; Pension Grid data, includings one record for each private pension mentioned in Wave 2; Financial Derived Variables, including summary variables for income and wealth (a spreadsheet is also available within the documentation); Ryff self-completion data, comprising responses to a self-completion questionnaire based on the 'Ryff Scale of Psychological Wellbeing' (see Standard Measures below for full reference).
- Wave 3: As with previous waves, the Wave 3 main survey comprised a personal face-to-face interview and a self-completion questionnaire. Overall, the intention in Wave 3 was to collect data about the same topics as in Wave 2, but some new topics were included - see documentation for further details. Additional files for Wave 3 include, as before, Mortgage Grid data, Pension Grid data and Financial Derived Variables.
- Wave 4: The ELSA Wave 4 interview again covered a wide range of topics and was similar to the questionnaire used in Wave 3, although every module was reviewed and the interview was also expanded to answer a variety of additional research questions - see documentation for further details. Additional files for wave 4 include: Nurse visit data, similar to that gathered at Wave 2; and Financial Derived Variables. At Wave 4, two further types of interview were conducted with specific sub-populations. An 'end of life interview' was sought with a relative, friend or carer of any core members who had died since responding to the first ELSA interview. An 'institution interview' was sought with core members who had moved from a private household after Wave 1 into a residential care home or similar institution, or with a proxy who could respond on their behalf. At present, no data from either of these interviews is held at the Archive.
- Wave 5: The modules and topics covered in Wave 5 remained largely the same as Waves 1-4. For a detailed list of Wave 5 coverage, see the all waves user guide in the documentation. At present, the Archive holds only the Wave 5 core data (with derived variables) and Pensions data.
Standard Measures used in ELSA:
- Rose Angina Questionnaire: Rose, G. and Blackburn, H. (1986) Cardiovascular survey methods, World Health Organization Monograph
- Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire: Leng, G. and Fowkes, F. (1992) 'The Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire: an improved version of the WHO/Rose Questionnaire for use in epidemiological surveys', Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 45, pp.1101-1109
- MRC Respiratory Questionnaire: Fletcher, C. et al. (1978) The natural history of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, Oxford: Oxford University Press
- CES-D Depression Scale (8-item): Rasloff, L.S. (1977) 'The CES-D Scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population', Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), pp.270-278
- General Health Questionnaire (12-item): Goldberg, D.P. Manual of the General Health Questionnaire, Windsor: NFER-Nelson, 1978
- CASP-19: Hyde, M. et al. (2003) 'A measure of quality of life in early old age: the theory, development and properties of a needs satisfaction model [CASP-19]', Ageing and Mental Health, 7, pp.186-194
- Ryff Scale of Psychological Wellbeing: Ryff, C.D. (1989) 'Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological wellbeing', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, pp.1069-1081, and Ryff, C.D. and Keyes, C.L. (1995) 'The structure of psychological wellbeing revisited', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), pp.719-727
By principal investigator(s):
Further publications relating to ELSA may be found on the Institute for Fiscal Studies: ELSA website.
Marmot, M., Banks, J., Blundell, R., Lessof, C. and Nazroo, J. (eds.) (2003) Health, wealth and lifestyles of the older population in England: the 2002 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. ISBN: 1-903274-34-6.
Banks, J., Emmerson, E. and Oldfield, Z. (2004) 'Not so brief lives: longevity expectations and well-being in retirement', in I. Stewart and R. Vaitilingam (eds.) Seven ages of man and woman: a look at life in Britain in the second Elizabethan era, London: ESRC.
Attanasio, O. et al. (2004) Pensions, pensioners and pension policy: financial security in UK retirement savings?, IFS briefing note 48, prepared for the ESRC seminar series 'Mapping the Policy Landscape'.
Calderwood, L., Cheshire, H., Conway, L., Lee, M., Taylor, R. and Lessof, C. (2005) Health, wealth and lifestyles of the older population in England: the 2002 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing: technical report, London: National Centre for Social Research.
Banks, J., Oldfield, Z. and Smith, J. (2012) 'Childhood health and differences in late-life health outcomes between England and the United States', Investigations in the Economics of Aging, University of Chicago Press, June, pp.321-339. See abstract at
Steptoe, A., Breeze, E., Banks, J. and Nazroo, J. (2012) 'Cohort profile: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing', International Journal of Epidemiology, November. See abstract at
Resulting from secondary analysis:
Steel, N. et al. (2004) 'Developing quality indicators for older adults: transfer from the USA to the UK is feasible', Quality and Safety in Health Care, 13(4), Aug, pp.260-264.
Bowling, A. and Windsor, J. (2008) 'The effects of question order and response-choice on self-rated health status in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA)', Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62, pp.81-85. Also published online at JECH online - Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, reference doi:10.1136/jech.2006.058214 (available to registered JECH subscribers only).
Judge A., Welton, N.J., Sandhu J. and Ben-Shlomo Y. (2009) 'Modelling the need for hip and knee replacement surgery, part 1: a two-stage cross-cohort approach', Arthritis Care and Research, 61(12), pp.1657-66.
Judge A., Welton, N.J., Sandhu J. and Ben-Shlomo Y. (2009) 'Modelling the need for hip and knee replacement surgery, part 2: incorporating census data to provide small-area predictions for need with uncertainty bounds', Arthritis Care and Research, 61(12), pp.1667-73.
Jenkins, A., (2011) 'Participation in learning and wellbeing among older adults', International Journal of Lifelong Education, 30(3), pp.403-20.
Jenkins, A., (2011) 'Investigating the effects of participation in learning on depressive symptoms: evidence for older adults in England', Educational Gerontology.
Vikstrom, J., Bladh, M., Hammar, M., Marcusson, J., Wressle, E. and Sydsjo, G. (2011) 'The influences of childlessness on the psychological well-being and social network of the oldest old', BMC Geriatrics, 11(78), November. See abstract at
Howel, D. (2012) 'Interpreting and evaluating the CASP-19 quality of life measure in older people', Age and Ageing, doi:10.1093/ageing/afs023
Forder, J. and Fernandez, J-L. (2012) Analysing the costs and benefits of social care funding arrangements in England: technical report (2nd Edition), University of Kent and London School of Economics Discussion Paper 2644/2. Retrieved June 18th, 2012, from http://www.pssru.ac.uk/archive/pdf/dp2644v2.pdf
Gale, C.R., Allerhand, M. and Deary, I.J. (2012) 'Is there a bidirectional relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive ability in older people? A prospective study using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing', Psych Med.
Behncke, S. (2012) 'Does retirement trigger ill health?', Health Economics, 21(3), pp.282-300, March. See abstract at
Silcock, D., Redwood, D. and Curry, C. (2012) Retirement income and assets: the implications for retirement income of Government policies to extend working lives, Pensions Policy Institute, pp.1-90, April. See abstract at
Grundy, E. and Read, S. (2012) 'Social contacts and receipt of help among older people in England: are there benefits of having more children?', The Journals of Gerontology: Physiological Sciences and Social Sciences, 67(6), pp.742-54, November. See abstract at
Ysseldyk, R., Haslam, S.A. and Haslam, C. (2013) 'Abide with me: religious group identification amongst older adults promotes health and well-being by maintaining multiple group memberships', Aging and Mental Health.
Daly, M. (2013) 'The relationship of C-reactive protein to obesity-related depressive symptoms: a longitudinal study', Obesity, 21, pp.248-250.
Blundell, R., Crawford, C. and Jin, W.(M.) (2013) What can wages and employment tell us about the UK's productivity puzzle?, IFS Working Papers, W13/11, June. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/wp.ifs.2013.1311. Retrieved August 19, 2013 from http://www.ifs.org.uk/wps/wp201311.pdf
Crawford, R., Keynes, S. and Tetlow, G. (2013) A single-tier pension: what does it really mean?, IFS Report R82, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/re.ifs.2013.0082. Retrieved August 19, 2013 from http://www.ifs.org.uk/comms/r82.pdf
Beach, B. (2013) Grandparental Generosity: Financial transfers from grandparents to grandchildren, London: International Longevity Centre-UK.
Cruwys, T., Dingle, G.A., Haslam, C., Haslam, S.A., Jetten, J. and Morton, T.A. (2013) 'Social group memberships protect against future depression, alleviate depression symptoms and prevent depression relapse', Social Science and Medicine, 98, pp.179-186, available online 25 September 2013.
Gale C.R., Baylis D., Cooper C. and Aihie Sayer, A. (2013) 'Inflammatory markers and incident frailty in men and women: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing', Age (Dordr.), 35(6), pp.2493-501. doi: 10.1007/s11357-013-9528-9
Gale C.R., Cooper C., Deary I.J, and Aihie Sayer, A. (2013) 'Psychological wellbeing and incident frailty in men and women: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing', Psychological Medicine. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291713001384
The Institute of Alcohol Studies (IAS) has produced a 'Data Dictionary' covering summary information on UK-based survey series (including ELSA) that include any data on alcohol use. Further information and links to the dictionary documents may be found on the IAS Data Dictionary - Table of Contents web page.