Catalogue

UK Data Service data catalogue record for:

Quarterly Labour Force Survey, October - December, 1994

Title details

SN: 5882
Title: Quarterly Labour Force Survey, October - December, 1994
Persistent identifier: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-5882-1
Series: Labour Force Survey [Quarterly Labour Force Survey, 1992-]
Depositor: Office for National Statistics. Social and Vital Statistics Division
Principal investigator(s): Office for National Statistics. Social and Vital Statistics Division
Sponsor(s): Office for National Statistics
Other acknowledgements: Until 5 July 1995, the Labour Force Survey (LFS) was the responsibility of the Employment Department. On that date, the Employment Department was abolished and responsibility for the survey was passed to the Central Statistical Office (CSO). In April 1996, the Central Statistical Office and the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys amalgamated to become the Office for National Statistics (ONS).

Subject Categories

General - Employment and labour

Abstract


Background
The Labour Force Survey (LFS) is a unique source of information using international definitions of employment and unemployment and economic inactivity, together with a wide range of related topics such as occupation, training, hours of work and personal characteristics of household members aged 16 years and over. It is used to inform social, economic and employment policy. The LFS was first conducted biennially from 1973-1983. Between 1984 and 1991 the survey was carried out annually and consisted of a quarterly survey conducted throughout the year and a 'boost' survey in the spring quarter (data were then collected seasonally). From 1992 quarterly data were made available, with a quarterly sample size approximately equivalent to that of the previous annual data. The survey then became known as the Quarterly Labour Force Survey (QLFS). From December 1994, data gathering for Northern Ireland moved to a full quarterly cycle to match the rest of the country, so the QLFS then covered the whole of the UK (though some additional annual Northern Ireland LFS datasets are also held at the UK Data Archive). Further information on the background to the QLFS may be found in the documentation.

LFS Documentation
The documentation available from the Archive to accompany LFS datasets largely consists of the latest version of each user guide volume alongside the appropriate questionnaire for the year concerned. However, volumes are updated periodically by ONS, so users are advised to check the ONS Labour Force Survey - User Guidance pages before commencing analysis.

Additional data derived from the QLFS
The Archive also holds further QLFS series: Special Licence access and Secure Data Service access datasets (see below); household datasets (produced twice a year); two-quarter and five-quarter longitudinal datasets; quarterly, annual and ad hoc module datasets compiled for Eurostat; and some additional annual Northern Ireland datasets.

LFS move from seasonal to calendar quarters
In accordance with European Union regulations, the QLFS moved from seasonal (spring, summer, autumn, winter) quarters to calendar quarters (January-March, April-June, July-September, October-December) in 2006. Subsequently, calendar versions of all datasets in the main QLFS series were deposited and the previous seasonal datasets were removed from the Archive's catalogue at the request of ONS. However, some seasonal datasets may still exist for other LFS series, and ONS advise that, because of the method of construction and the weighting factors used in the datasets, comparison cannot be made between datasets of a calendar and seasonal nature. Time series and longitudinal analysis should only be conducted on datasets of the same type.

Special Licence QLFS data and corresponding changes to EUL datasets:
From the January-March 2003 quarter, a Special Licence (SL) version of the QLFS data is also available in addition to the version made available under the standard End User Licence (EUL). The SL version contains extra variables, and therefore is subject to more restrictive access conditions. Prospective users of the SL version will need to complete an extra application form and demonstrate to the data owners exactly why they need access to the extra variables, in order to get permission to use that version (see 'Access' section below). Therefore, most users should order the standard version of the data. In order to help users choose the correct dataset, 'Special Licence Access' has been added to the dataset titles for the SL versions of the data. Typically, the extra non-EUL variables that can be found in the SL data, are: month and year of birth (variables dobm and doby); Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics Level 2 (NUTS2 - county-level); 4-digit Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) for occupation in apprenticeship, last job, second job and job made redundant from (soc2kap, soc2kl, soc2kr and soc2ks); unitary authority/local authority for place of residence and place of work (ua/la); urban/rural indicator (urind). Data for households of size 10 or above, which are excluded from the standard EUL data, can also be found in the SL data. With the introduction of SL data, some variables were correspondingly removed from the EUL datasets for 2003 onwards, including dobm, doby, nuts2, soc2kap, soc2kl, soc2kr and soc2ks. Users should note that these variables may still be referenced in the user guides without reference to restricted availability.

Secure Access QLFS data
More comprehensive versions of the QLFS datasets are also available via the UK Data Service Secure Access system. These datasets include further additional, detailed variables not included in either the EUL or SL versions. They are subject to further access restrictions (see the Secure Access webpages for details).

Changes to QLFS identifier variables
Changes designed to improve confidentiality have been made to the identifier variables supplied with the main QLFS datasets from January-March 2011 onwards. Pseudonymised variables Casenop, Hserialp and Quotap are now included.

This study was deposited in 2008, as a result of the move from seasonal to calendar quarters for the QLFS, and the reweighting process to 2007-2008 population figures. It combines data from previously-available QLFS seasonal quarter datasets. The depositor has advised that small revisions to the data may have been made during this process, but they should not be significant.

Main Topics:
The QLFS questionnaire comprises a 'core' of questions which are included in every survey, together with some 'non-core' questions which vary from quarter to quarter.

The questionnaire can be split into two main parts. The first part contains questions on the respondent's household, family structure, basic housing information and demographic details of household members. The second part contains questions covering economic activity, education and health, and also may include a few questions asked on behalf of other government departments (for example the Department for Work and Pensions and the Home Office). Until 1997, the questions on health covered mainly problems which affected the respondent's work. From that quarter onwards, the questions cover all health problems. Detailed questions on income have also been included in each quarter since 1993. The basic questionnaire is revised each year, and a new version published, along with a transitional version that details changes from the previous year's questionnaire.

Coverage, universe, methodology

Dates of fieldwork: October 1994 - December 1994
Country: Great Britain
Spatial units: Government Office Regions
Standard Statistical Regions
Universe: National
Households
All persons normally resident in private households in Great Britain and (from 1994) Northern Ireland.
Time dimensions: Repeated cross-sectional study
Data are collected quarterly
Sampling procedures: Simple random sample
Four sampling frames are used. See documentation for details.
Method of data collection: Face-to-face interview; Telephone interview
The first interview is conducted face-to-face, and subsequent interviews by telephone where possible.
Weighting: Weighting used. See documentation for details.

Keywords

ABSENTEEISMACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTADVANCED LEVEL EXAMINATIONS
ADVANCED SUPPLEMENTARY LEVEL EXAMINATIONSAGEALLERGIES
APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENTAPPOINTMENT TO JOBAPPRENTICESHIP
ATTITUDESBONUS PAYMENTSBUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION COUNCIL AWARDS
BUSINESSESCARDIOVASCULAR DISEASESCARE OF DEPENDANTS
CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATIONCERTIFICATE OF SIXTH YEAR STUDIESCHILD BENEFITS
CHILD CARECHILDRENCHRONIC ILLNESS
CITIZENSHIPCITY AND GUILDS OF LONDON INSTITUTE AWARDSCOHABITATION
COMPANIESCONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENTDEBILITATIVE ILLNESS
DEGREESDEPRESSIONDIABETES
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM DISORDERSDISABILITIESDISABLED PERSONS
DISMISSALDISTANCE LEARNINGDOMESTIC RESPONSIBILITIES
EARLY RETIREMENTECONOMIC ACTIVITYEDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
EDUCATIONAL CERTIFICATESEDUCATIONAL COURSESEDUCATIONAL FEES
EDUCATIONAL FINANCEEDUCATIONAL GRANTSEDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIESELDERLYEMPLOYEES
EMPLOYER-SPONSORED TRAININGEMPLOYMENT HISTORYEMPLOYMENT PROGRAMMES
EMPLOYMENT SERVICESEMPLOYMENTENDOCRINE DISORDERS
EPILEPSYETHNIC GROUPSEVENING SCHOOLS
EXAMINATIONSFAMILIESFAMILY MEMBERS
FIELDS OF STUDYFULL-TIME EMPLOYMENTFURNISHED ACCOMMODATION
GENDERGENERAL CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATIONGENERAL NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION
GENERAL SCOTTISH VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONGREAT BRITAINHEADS OF HOUSEHOLD
HEALTHHEARING IMPAIRMENTSHIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
HIGHER EDUCATIONHIGHER NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMAHOME BUYING
HOME OWNERSHIPHOME-BASED WORKHOURS OF WORK
HOUSEHOLDSHOUSING TENUREHOUSING
IMMIGRATIONINCOMEINDUSTRIES
INJURIESIN-SERVICE TRAININGINVESTMENT RETURN
INVOLUNTARY SHORT TIME WORKINGJOB CHANGINGJOB DESCRIPTION
JOB HUNTINGJOB SEEKER'S ALLOWANCELABOUR DISPUTES
LABOUR FORCELANDLORDSLEARNING DISABILITIES
LEAVEMANAGERSMARITAL STATUS
MATERNITY LEAVEMATERNITY PAYMENTAL DISORDERS
METHODS OF PAYMENTMORTGAGESMUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASES
NATIONAL IDENTITYNATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONNATIONALITY
NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASESOCCUPATIONAL PENSIONSOCCUPATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETYOCCUPATIONAL TRAININGOCCUPATIONS
ONE-PARENT FAMILIESORDINARY LEVEL EXAMINATIONSORDINARY NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA
ORGANIZATIONSOVERTIMEPART-TIME COURSES
PART-TIME EMPLOYMENTPATERNITY LEAVEPLACE OF BIRTH
PLACE OF RESIDENCEPRIVATE SECTORPUBLIC SECTOR
QUALIFICATIONSREBATESRECRUITMENT
REDUNDANCY PAYREDUNDANCYRELIGIOUS AFFILIATION
RENTED ACCOMMODATIONRESIDENTIAL MOBILITYRESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES
RETIREMENTROYAL SOCIETY OF ARTS AWARDSSANDWICH COURSES
SCOTTISH CERTIFICATE OF EDUCATIONSCOTTISH VOCATIONAL EDUCATION COUNCIL AWARDSSCOTTISH VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION
SEASONAL EMPLOYMENTSELF-EMPLOYEDSHARED HOME OWNERSHIP
SICK LEAVESICK PAYSICK PERSONS
SKIN DISEASESSMALL BUSINESSESSOCIAL CLASS
SOCIAL HOUSINGSOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITSSOCIAL SECURITY CONTRIBUTIONS
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUSSPEECH IMPAIRMENTSSPOUSES
STATE RETIREMENT PENSIONSSTUDENTSSUBSIDIARY EMPLOYMENT
SUPERVISORSSUPERVISORY STATUSTAX RELIEF
TAXATIONTEACHER QUALIFICATIONSTEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT
TERMINATION OF SERVICETIED HOUSINGTRAINING CENTRES
TRAINING COURSESTRAININGUNEMPLOYED
UNEMPLOYMENTUNFURNISHED ACCOMMODATIONUNWAGED WORKERS
VISION IMPAIRMENTSVOCATIONAL EDUCATION CERTIFICATESVOCATIONAL EDUCATION
WAGESWELSH (LANGUAGE)WORKING CONDITIONS
WORKPLACE

Administrative and access information

Date of release:
First edition: 15 July 2008
Copyright: Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland
Access conditions: The depositor has specified that registration is required and standard conditions of use apply. The depositor may be informed about usage. See terms and conditions of access for further information.
Availability: UK Data Service
Contact: Get in touch

Documentation

TitleFile NameSize (KB)
User Guide Vol.1 - Background and Methodology background.pdf 3247
User Guide Vol.5 - Classifications classifications.pdf 1352
User Guide Vol.4 - Derived Variables derivedvariables2007.pdf 4330
User Guide Vol.9 - Eurostat and Eurostat Derived Variables eurostat.pdf 983
User Guide Vol.8 - Household and Family Data household.pdf 346
LFS Reweighting Project 2007 Information lfs_2007_reweighting.pdf 29
User Guide Vol.6 - Local Area Data localarea.pdf 515
LFS User Guide Vol.2/2A - Questionnaire questionnaire1994.pdf 201
User Guide Vol.3 - Details of LFS Variables 1992-2002 variabledetails1992-2002.pdf 2249
User Guide Vol.3 - Details of LFS Variables 2007 variabledetails2007.pdf 1242
User Guide Vol.7 - LFS Variables 1979-1991 variables1979_1991.pdf 727
Study information and citation UKDA_Study_5882_Information.htm 29
READ File read5882.htm 11

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Related support guides:

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Publications

By principal investigator(s):
Employment Department (-July 1995), Employment Gazette, London: HMSO, monthly.

Department for Education and Employment and Central Statistical Office (August-October 1995), Employment Gazette, monthly.

Central Statistical Office (November 1995-March 1996) Labour Market Trends (incorporating Employment Gazette), monthly.

Office for National Statistics (April 1996- ) Labour Market Trends (incorporating Employment Gazette), monthly. From 2001 onwards, this publication can be accessed online via the ONS Labour Market Trends Archive.

Employment Department (1992-April 1995) Labour Force Survey Quarterly Bulletin.

Central Statistical Office (July 1995-1996) Labour Force Survey Quarterly Bulletin, quarterly.

Employment Department (1992-April 1995) Labour Force Survey Rapid Release, quarterly.

Central Statistical Office (July 1995-1996) Labour Force Survey Rapid Release, quarterly.

Office for National Statistics (1999) What exactly is the Labour Force Survey?, London: ONS.

Madouros, V. (2006) Impact of the switch from seasonal to calendar quarters in the Labour Force Survey, London: ONS. Retrieved December 14, 2007 from: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/articles/labour_market_trends/CQ_article.pdf

Resulting from secondary analysis:
Blanchflower, D. and Oswald, A., (1993) International wage curves, CEP Discussion Paper No. 116, February.

Arber, S. and Evandrou, M., (1993) `Mapping the territory ' IN S. Arber and M. Evandrou (eds.) Ageing, independence and the life course, Jessica Kingsley.

Felstead, A., Green, F. (1993) Cycles of training? Evidence from the British recession of the early 1990s, Discussion Papers in Economics, No. 93/3, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.

Meager. N., Court, J. and Moralee, J., (1994) Self-employment and the distribution of income, Institute of Manpower Studies Report No. 270.

Peggs, K., Will you still feed me when I'm 64?, Paper for presentation to the British Sociological Association Annual Conference, University of Central Lancashire, March 28th to 31st, 1994.

Glover, J. and Arber, S., Polarisation in mothers' employment : occupational class, age of youngest child, employment rights and work-hours, Paper presented to the Work, Employment and Society conference, University of Kent, UK, September 12-14 1994.

Siora, G. and Pitcher, J., (1994) The nature, extent and demand for management skills in the East Midlands, Final Report, Institute for Employment Research, University of Warwick, October.

Gregg, P. and Wadsworth, J., (1995) `A short history of labour turnover, job tenure, and job security, 1975-93' Oxford Review of Economic Policy 11(1), pp.73-90.

Glover, J. and Arber, S., (1995) `Polarization in mothers' employment' Gender, Work and Organization 2(4), October, pp.165-179.

Dex, S. and McCulloch, A. (1995) Flexible employment in Britain: a statistical analysis, Research Discussion Series No.15, Manchester: Equal Opportunities Commission.

Glover, J., Smeaton, D. and Fielding, J., (1995) Gender and science, engineering and technology (SET) project, Memorandum submitted to the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology.

Felstead, A., (1996) `Identifying gender inequalities in the distribution of vocational qualifications in the UK' Gender, Work and Organization 3(1), January, pp.38-50.

Glover, J., Fielding, J., and Smeaton, D. (1996) `What happens to women and men with SET degrees?' Labour Market Trends 104(2), February, pp.63-67.

Blundell, R., Magnac, T., and Meghir, C. (1996) Savings and labour market transitions, Working Paper No. W96/5, April, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Machin, S., Ryan, A., and Van Reenen, J. (1996) Technology and changes in skill structure: evidence from an international panel of industries, Working Paper No. W96/6, April, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Drinkwater, S. and Leslie, D. (1996) Adult earnings variables to the SARs: accounting for the ethnicity effect, Department of Economics, Manchester Metropolitan University.

Employment Policy Institute (1996) `Introducing the employment audit' Employment Audit 1, Summer.

Felstead, A. (1996) `Homeworking in Britain: the national picture in the mid-1990s' Industrial Relations Journal 27(3), September, pp.225-238.

Felstead, A. (1996) `Training implications of regulation compliance and business cycles' in A. Booth and D.J. Snowner (eds.) Acquiring skills: market failures, their symptoms and policy responses, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Alpin, C., Shackleton, J.R. and Walsh, S. Employee self-financed training in Britain : some summary data from the Labour Force Survey, paper presented at the 8th Annual Conference of the European Association of Labour Economists. Education, Training and the Labour Market Research Group, University of Westminster, 1996.

Shackleton, J.R. and Walsh, S. (1996) `The determinants of NVQ acquisition'Education Economics.

Shackleton, J.R. and Walsh, S. (1996) The determinants of self-financed work-related education and training, Research Working Paper Series 2: No.13, Faculty of Business, Management and Social Studies, University of Westminster.

Urwin, P. (1996) Older workers - an opportunity for London's businesses?, Labour Market Briefing, University of Westminster and London Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

Urwin, P. and Alpin, C. (1996) Atypical employment in the capital, Labour Market Briefing, University of Westminster and London Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

Smeaton, D., Glover, J. and Fielding, J. (1997) 'Recent trends in women's representation in science and engineering' Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 3(1).

Dawe, F. and Knight, I. (1997) 'A study of proxy response on the Labour Force Survey' Survey Methodology Bulletin no. 40, p.30-36.

Tate, P. (1997) 'Data on households and families from the Labour Force Survey (special report)' Labour Market Trends 105(3), March, p.89-98.

Felstead, A., Krahn, H., Powell, M. (1997) Contrasting fortunes across the life course : non-standard work among women and men in Canada and the United Kingdom, CLMS Working Paper No.17, Centre for Labour Market Studies, Leicester University, May.

Tate, P. Utilising longitudinally linked data from the Labour Force Survey, paper presented to the Labour Market Statistics User Group seminar, 8th July 1997.

Gasson, R. (1997) Educational attainment levels of farmers, Department of Agricultural Economics and Business Management, Wye College, University of London, July.

Brauns, H., Mueller, W. and Steinmann, S. (1997) Educational expansion and returns to education : a comparative study on Germany, France, the UK and Hungary, Arbeitspapiere ABI/Nr.23, Mannheimer Zentrum fuer Europaeische Sozial Forschung, Germany.

Waldfogel, J., Higuchi, Y. and Abe, M. (1998) Maternity leave policies and women's employment after childbirth : evidence from the United States, Britain and Japan, CASEpaper CASE/3, January, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics.

Urwin, P. (1998) London as a business centre - the skills and experience base, School of Economic and Business Studies, University of Westminster.

Gasson, R. (1998) `Educational attainment levels of UK farmers - a review' European Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 4(4), pp.231-242.

Canty, A.J. and Davison, A.C. (1998) Resampling-based variance estimation for labour force surveys, Department of Mathematics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland, June 9th.

Shields, M.A. and Wheatley Price, S. (1998) 'The earnings of male immigrants in England : evidence from the quarterly LFS' Applied Economics, 30, pp.1157-1168.

Papasolomontos, C. and Christie, T. (1998) 'Using national surveys : a review of secondary analyses with special reference to education' Educational Research, 40(3), Winter, pp.295-309.

Dickens, R. and Machin, S. (1998) 'Minimum wage: maximum impact?' CentrePiece, 3(3), pp.10-13, Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics.

Machin, S. and Gregg, P. (1998) Child development and success or failure in the youth labour market Discussion Paper 397, Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science.

Urwin, P., Shackleton, J. and Kramer, S. (1998) 'People, skills and experience' IN London as an international business centre, Kogan Page, pp.53-77. ISBN 0749425431.

Gasteen, A. and Houston, J. (1998) 'Income tax varying powers and the Scottish labour market' Fraser of Allender Quarterly Economic Commentary, 23(2).

Gasteen, A., Asenova, D. and Houston, J. (1999) 'Implications of labour market restructuring on the Scottish Parliament's finances' Proceedings of 1st Scottish Trade Union Research Network Conference, July.

Gasteen, A., Houston, J. and Asenova, D. (1999) 'Labour market flexibility and the public finances' IN L.Funk (ed), The economics and politics of the Third Way: essays in honour of Eric Owen Smith, LIT Verlag. ISBN 3825843408.

Gasteen, A., Houston, J. and Asenova, D. (1999) 'Structural change in the Scottish labour market and the new parliament's income tax varying powers' Public Money and Management, 19(4), October-December.

Felstead, A., Krahn, H. and Powell, M. (1999) 'Young and old at risk: comparative trends in 'non-standard' patterns of employment in Canada and the United Kingdom' International Journal of Manpower, 20(5), pp.277-296.

Campbell, N. (1999) The decline of employment among older people in Britain, CASEpaper 19 (and CASEbrief 9), Centre for the Analysis of Social Exclusion, STICERD, London School of Economics.

Labour Research Department London Allowance : further inquiries, paper presented to the Metropolitan Police Federation, June 1999.

Manning, A. (1999) Pretty vacant: recruitment in low-wage labour markets, Discussion Paper 418, Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science.

Taylor, P. and Urwin, P. (1999) 'Recent trends in the labour force participation of older people in the UK' The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance, 24(4), pp.551-579.

Urwin, P. and Shackleton, J.R. (1999) 'Search methods and transitions into employment and inactivity' International Journal of Manpower, 20(3/4), pp.189-230.

Alpin, C., Shackleton, J.R. and Urwin, P. (1999) Strength through diversity: ethnic minorities in London's economy, London Skills Forecasting Unit, London: London TEC Council.

Fielding, J. and Glover, J. (1999) 'Women science graduates in Britain: the value of secondary analysis of large scale data sets' Work, Employment and Society, 13(2), pp.353-367.

Glover, J. and Fielding, J. (1999) 'Women and the sciences in Britain: getting in?' Journal of Education and Work, 12(1), pp.57-73.

Burgess, S. et al (1999) The class of '81: the effects of early-career unemployment on subsequent unemployment experiences, CASEpaper 32, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science.

Green, F., McIntosh, S. and Vignoles, A. (1999) 'Overeducation' and skills - clarifying the concepts, Discussion Paper 435, Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science. ISBN 0753013061.

Glover, J. (2000) Women and scientific employment, London: Macmillan. ISBN 0333683188.

Carmichael, F. and Woods, R. (2000) 'Ethnic penalties in unemployment and occupational attainment: evidence for Britain' International Review of Applied Economics, 14(1).

Felstead, A. et al (2000) A statistical portrait of working at home in the UK: evidence from the Labour Force Survey, Working Paper No.4, ESRC Future of Work Programme, Swindon: ESRC.

Egerton, M. (2000) 'Monitoring contemporary student flows and characteristics: secondary analyses using the Labour Force Survey and the General Household Survey' Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A 163, Part 1, pp.63-80.

Metcalf, D., Hansen, K. and Charlwood, A. (2001) 'Unions and the sword of justice: unions and pay systems, pay inequality, pay discrimination and low pay', offprint from WERS Dissemination Service.

Lewis, R., McNabb, R., Robinson, H. and Wass, V. (2002) 'Court awards of damages for loss of future earnings: An empirical study and an alternative method of calculation', Journal of Law and Society, 29, pp.406-435.

Lewis, R., McNabb, R. and Wass, V. (2002) 'A new way to assess damages for loss of future earnings', New Law Journal, pp.1042-3.

Lewis, R., McNabb, R. and Wass, V. (2002) 'Methods for calculating damages for loss of future earnings', Journal of Personal Injury Litigation, 2, pp.151-165.

Bailey, M. F. (2003) 'The labour market participation of Northern Ireland university students' Applied Economics, 35, pp.1345-1350.

Felstead, A., Jewson, N. and Walters, S. (2003) The changing place of work, ESRC Future of Work Programme Working Paper No.28, Centre for Labour Market Studies, University of Leicester, 24 June.

Lewis, R., McNabb, R. and Wass, V. (2003) 'The calculation of damages for personal injury in respect of loss of future earnings', Insurance Research and Practice, 18(1), pp.4-7.

Lewis, R., McNabb, R., Robinson, H. and Wass, V. (2003) 'Loss of earnings following personal injury: Do the courts adequately compensate injured parties?', Economic Journal, 113 (491), pp.568-584.

Chevalier, A. and Viitanen, T. (2003) 'The causality between female labour force participation and the supply of childcare', Applied Economics Letters, 9, pp.915-918.

Chevalier, A. et al. (2004) 'Does education raise productivity, or just reflect it?', Economic Journal, 114, F499-F517.

Chevalier, A. et al. (2005) 'Parental education, income and child's education', IZA, DP 1496.

Felstead, A., Jewson, N. and Walters, S. (2005) 'The shifting location of work: new statistical evidence on the spaces and places of employment', Work, Employment and Society, 19(2), pp.415-431.

Frijters, P., Shields, M.A. and Wheatley Price, S. (2005) 'Job search methods and their success: A comparison of immigrants and natives in the UK', Economic Journal, 115, pp.F359-F376.

Frijters, P., Shields, M.A. and Wheatley Price, S. (2006) 'Investigating the quitting decision of nurses: Panel data evidence from the British National Health Service', Health Economics.

Rigg, J. (2006) Labour market disadvantage amongst disabled people: a longitudinal perspective, CASEpaper 103, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics.

Ma, A. H. Y. et al. (2006) 'Comparing the NES and LFS: an analysis of the differences between the data sets and their implications for the pattern of geographical pay in the UK', Regional Studies, 40(6), pp.645-665.

Siebert, W.S., Addison J. and Bailey, R. (2006) 'The impact of deunionisation on earnings dispersion revisited', Research in Labor Economics, pp.337-364. (Uses 1995 QLFS and 1983 GHS).

Elliott, R. F. et al. (2007) 'Geographically differentiated pay in the labour market for nurses', Journal of Health Economics, 26(1), pp.190-212.

Sriskandarajah, D., Cooley, L. and Kornblatt, T. (2007) Britain's immigrants: an economic profile: a report for Class Films and Channel 4 'Dispatches', London: Institute for Public Policy Research.

The LFS data have been used in constructing some of the UK labour market variables in the EU KLEMS database. Specific relevant documents include:

Timmer, M. et al. (prepared on behalf of the EU KLEMS Consortium) (2007) EUKLEMS growth and productivity accounts: part 1: methodology. This publication is available from http://www.euklems.net/

Timmer, M. et al. (prepared on behalf of the EU KLEMS Consortium) (2007) EUKLEMS growth and productivity accounts: part 2. This publication is available from http://www.euklems.net/

Data from the Labour Force Survey, 2002: Teaching Dataset (SN 4736) has been used for the following textbook:
Tarling, R. (2008) Statistical modelling for social researchers: principles and practice, Oxford: Routledge. ISBN: 978-0-415-44840-6.

Longhi S., Nicoletti C. and Platt L. (2009) 'Decomposing wage gaps across the pay distribution: investigating inequalities of ethno-religious groups and disabled people', ISER Working Paper 2009-31.

Longhi S. and Platt L. (2008) Pay gaps across equalities areas, EHRC Research Report 9. This publication is also available on the Equality and Human Rights Commission website.

Sutherland, J. (2009) Monitoring and ealuating the performance of the labour market in Scotland, Centre for Public Policy for Regions Working Paper No. 18, Glasgow: University of Glasgow.

Sutherland, J. (2009) Occupational change in Scotland, 2001-2008, Centre for Public Policy for Regions Working Paper No. 20, Glasgow: University of Glasgow.

Sutherland, J. (2009) 'Occupational change in Scotland, 2001–2008', Scottish Affairs, 69, Autumn.

Sutherland, J. (2010) 'The structure of employment and graduate employment in Scotland, 2001 -2009', The Fraser Economic Commentary, June.

Sumption, M. and Somerville, W. (2010) The UK's new Europeans: progress and challenges five years after accession, Equality and Human Rights Commission/Migration Policy Institute. ISBN 978 1 84206 252 4. This publication is also available on the Equality and Human Rights Commission website.

Davies, R. et al. (2011) An anatomy of economic inequality in Wales: A report prepared on behalf of the Wales Equality and Human Rights Commission, Wales Institute of Social and Economic Research, Data and Methods (WISERD) Research Reports Series RRS/002, University of Cardiff. This publication is also available on the WISERD website.

Williams, B. (2011) A study of the UK labour market during the 2008/2009 UK recession, unpublished M.Sc. Economics dissertation, University of the West of England.

Forth, J., Bryson, A., Humphris, A., Kleiner, M. and Koumenta, M.(2011) A review of occupational regulation and its impact, UK Commission for Employment and Skills Evidence Report No. 40.

Urwin, P. and Buscha, F. (2012) Back to work: the role of small businesses in employment and enterprise, London: Federation of Small Businesses.

Blundell, R., Crawford, C. and Jin, W.(M.) (2013) What can wages and employment tell us about the UK's productivity puzzle?, IFS Working Papers, W13/11, June. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/wp.ifs.2013.1311.

Crawford, C., Dearden, L. and Greaves, E. (2013) When you are born matters: evidence for England, IFS Reports, R80, May. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/re.ifs.2013.0080.

Crawford, C., Dearden, L. and Greaves, E. (2013) The impact of age within academic year on adult outcomes, IFS Working Papers, W13/07, May. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/wp.ifs.2013.1307.

Cribb, J., Hood, A., Joyce, R. and Phillips, D. (2013) Living standards, poverty and inequality in the UK, IFS Reports, R81. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/re.ifs.2013.0081.

Phillips, D. (2013) Government spending on benefits and state pensions in Scotland: current patterns and future issues, IFS Briefing Note, BN139. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/re.ifs.2013.0083.

Amior, M., Crawford, R. and G. Tetlow (2013) The UK's public finances in the long run: the IFS model, IFS Working Paper W13/29, Institute for Fiscal Studies, November.

Amior, M., Crawford, R. and G. Tetlow (2013) Fiscal sustainability of an independent Scotland, IFS Report R88, Institute for Fiscal Studies, November.

Jones, M. and Wass, V.J. (2013) 'Understanding changing disability-related employment gaps in Britain 1998-2011', Work, Employment and Society, 27(6), pp.982-1003. doi: 10.1177/0950017013475372

Buscha, F. and Urwin, P. (2013) 'Pathways to employment: the role of small businesses in employing the unemployed and inactive', presented at The Labour Force Survey: Past, Present and Future conference, 28th November 2013, BIS Conference Centre.

Chevalier, A., Harmon, C., O'Sullivan, V. and Walker, I. (2013) 'The impact of parental income and education on the schooling of their children', IZA Journal of Labor Economics, 2(8). doi:10.1186/2193-8997-2-8

Longhi S. and Taylor M. (2014?) 'Employed and unemployed job seekers and the business cycle', Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, doi: 10.1111/obes.12029 Longer version: ISER Working Paper 2013-02, retrieved 17 February 2014 from https://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/publications/working-papers/iser/2013-02.pdf

Longhi S., Taylor M. (2013) 'Occupational change and mobility among employed and unemployed job seekers', Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 60(1), pp.71-100.

Longhi S., Nicoletti C., Platt L. (2013) 'Explained and unexplained wage gaps across the main ethno-religious groups in Great Britain', Oxford Economic Papers, 65(2), pp.471-493.

Coleman, N; Sykes, W. and Groom, C. (2013) Barriers to employment and unfair treatment at work: a quantitative analysis of disabled people's experiences, Research Report no.88, Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission. Retrieved February 26, 2014 from http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/barriers_and_unfair_treatment_final.pdf

Jones, M and Wass, V. (2013) 'Understanding changing disability-related employment gaps in Britain 1998-2011', Work, Employment and Society, 27(6), December, pp.982-1003.

Variables

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