UK Data Service data catalogue record for:

General Household Survey, 1998-1999: Special Licence Access

Title details

SN: 6271
Title: General Household Survey, 1998-1999: Special Licence Access
Alternative title: GHS; General Lifestyle Survey; GLF
Persistent identifier: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-6271-1
Series: General Lifestyle Survey, 1998-2011: Special Licence Access
Depositor: Office for National Statistics. Social and Vital Statistics Division
Principal investigator(s): Office for National Statistics. Social Survey Division
Sponsor(s): Office for National Statistics
Department of Health
Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions
Department for Culture, Media and Sport
Department of Social Security
Department for Education and Employment
Inland Revenue

Subject Categories

General - Education
General - Employment and labour
General - Health
Health services and medical care - Health
Social indicators and quality of life - Society and culture
Use and provision of specific social services - Social welfare policy and systems


The General Lifestyle Survey (GLF), formerly the General Household Survey (GHS), ran from 1972-2011. It was a continuous annual national survey of people living in private households, conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS). The main aim of the survey was to collect data on a range of core topics, covering household, family and individual information. This information was used by government departments and other organisations for planning, policy and monitoring purposes, and to present a picture of households, family and people in Great Britain. From 2008, the GHS became a module of the Integrated Household Survey (IHS). In recognition, the survey was renamed the General Lifestyle Survey. The GLF closed in January 2012. The 2011 GLF (SN 7475) is therefore the last in the series. A limited number of questions previously run on the GLF have been included on the Opinions and Lifestyle Survey (OPN), and will be deposited at the UK Data Archive as OPN outputs.

Special Licence GLF/GHS:
The UK Data Archive holds GLF/GHS data from 1972-2011, but Special Licence (SL) versions are only available from 1998 onwards. The SL versions include all variables held in the standard 'End User Licence' (EUL) version, plus extra variables covering cigarette codes/descriptions and some birthdate information for respondents and household members. Prospective users of the SL version will need to complete an extra application form and demonstrate to the data owners exactly why they need access to the extra variables, in order to obtain permission to use it (see 'Access' section below). Therefore, most users should order the EUL version of the data (see the UK Data Service General Lifestyle Survey series webpage).

The GHS started in 1971 and was conducted annually until 2011, except for breaks in 1997-1998 when the survey was reviewed, and 1999-2000 when the survey was redeveloped. Further information may be found in the 'An overview of 40 years of data' document, available with the GLF 2011 (SN 7475), or on the ONS An overview of 40 years of data: General Lifestyle Survey webpage. Details of changes each year may be found in the individual GHS/GLF survey documentation.

In 2005, the European Union (EU) made a legal obligation (EU-SILC) for member states to collect additional statistics on income and living conditions. In addition to this the EU-SILC data cover poverty and social exclusion. These statistics are used to help plan and monitor European social policy by comparing poverty indicators and changes over time across the EU. The EU-SILC requirement was integrated into the GHS/GLF in 2005. After the closure of the GLF, EU-SILC will be collected via the Family Resources Survey (FRS) with a standalone survey providing the longitudinal SILC element.

Further information may be found on the ONS General Lifestyle Survey webpages.

End-User Licence (EUL) version
The standard EUL version of the GHS 1998-1999 is held under SN 4134.

Main Topics:
The main GLF/GHS consisted of a household questionnaire, completed by the Household Reference Person (HRP), and an individual questionnaire, completed by all adults aged 16 and over resident in the household. A number of different trailers each year covering extra topics were included in later (post-review) surveys in the series from 2000-2011. The Special Licence versions include some extra variables covering respondent and household members' birthdate information, and cigarette codes/descriptions.

The household questionnaire covered the following topics: household information, accommodation type, housing tenure/costs, and consumer durables including vehicle ownership.

The individual questionnaire included data from the household dataset, and additional sections on migration/citizenship/national identity/ethnicity, employment, pensions, education, health, child care, smoking, drinking, family information, financial situation, and income.
For the first time in 1998, the GHS included questions asking about periods of cohabitation not leading to marriage. Topics also covered in 1998 included day care for children aged under 14 years, smoking, drinking and people aged 65 years and over.

Coverage, universe, methodology

Dates of fieldwork: 01 April 1998 - 31 March 1999
Country: Great Britain
Spatial units: Countries
Government Office Regions
Standard Statistical Regions
Observation units: Individuals
Kind of data: Individual (micro) level
Universe: National
Private households in Great Britain
Time dimensions: Repeated cross-sectional study
Sampling procedures: See documentation for details.
Number of units: 8,636 households; 15,853 individuals; 4,543 cases with child information
Method of data collection: Face-to-face interview
Weighting: Weighting used. See documentation for details.



Administrative and access information

Date of release:
First edition: 14 September 2009
Copyright: Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland
Access conditions: The depositor has specified that registration is required and standard conditions of use apply. The depositor may be informed about usage.
Additional special conditions of use also apply. See terms and conditions of access for further information.

In addition, the UK Data Service is required to request permission from the depositor prior to supplying the data.
Available to UK applicants only.

Please note:
Since these data pose a higher risk of disclosure than data made available under the standard End User Licence they have additional special conditions attached to them. Any registered user requiring access to these data will have to be accredited by the UK Statistics Authority as an Approved Researcher.

To apply for accreditation a user will need to complete forms that will require: (i) evidence that he/she is a fit and proper person and details about the purpose of the research; (ii) an online order for the data; (iii) a signed declaration that he/she understands the confidentiality obligations owed to those data including its physical security.

The evidence to be adduced will include previous research projects and publications. New users may need to provide the contact details of a senior member of staff who can vouch for them. The research purpose form will ask for information about the intended use of the data, a justification for access and planned outputs.

Users who obtain access to these data are required to read and follow the guide,Microdata handling and security: guide to good practice.

To apply for access, users should use the Download/order link on this page and will be directed to the relevant forms as part of the ordering process.
Availability: UK Data Service
Contact: Get in touch


TitleFile NameSize (KB)
Questionnaires/Interviewer Instructions 6271userguide1.pdf 652
Editing Instructions 6271userguide2.pdf 292
List of Variables on the Individual File - Part 1 6271userguide3.pdf 373
List of Variables on the Individual File - Part 2 6271userguide4.pdf 339
List of Variables on the Household File 6271userguide5.pdf 214
Publications 6271userguide6.pdf 549
Derived Variables - Part 1 (A-D) 6271userguide7.pdf 389
Derived Variables - Part 2 (E-N) 6271userguide8.pdf 396
Derived Variables - Part 3 (O-Y) 6271userguide9.pdf 265
Study information and citation UKDA_Study_6271_Information.htm 27
READ File read6271.htm 13

Related studies:

General Household Survey, 2007: Special Licence Access (SN 6263)
General Household Survey, 2006: Special Licence Access (SN 6264)
General Household Survey, 2005: Special Licence Access (SN 6265)
General Household Survey, 2004-2005: Special Licence Access (SN 6266)
General Household Survey, 2003-2004: Special Licence Access (SN 6267)
General Household Survey, 2002-2003: Special Licence Access (SN 6268)
General Household Survey, 2001-2002: Special Licence Access (SN 6269)
General Household Survey, 2000-2001: Special Licence Access (SN 6270)
General Lifestyle Survey, 2008: Special Licence Access (SN 6414)
General Lifestyle Survey, 2009: Special Licence Access (SN 6737)
General Lifestyle Survey, 2010: Special Licence Access (SN 7000)
General Lifestyle Survey, 2011: Special Licence Access (SN 7475)
Opinions and Lifestyle Survey, General Lifestyle Modules, 2012: Special Licence Access (SN 7538)


By principal investigator(s):
Reports produced in hard copy only (some may now be out of print):

OPCS, Social Survey Division, (1972-1995) General Household Survey, London: HMSO.

Goddard, E., (1992) Voluntary work : a study carried out on behalf of the Home Office as part of the 1992 General Household Survey, OPCS Social Survey Division Series GHS No.23 Supplement A, London: HMSO.

ONS, Social Survey Division (1996) Living in Britain: results from the 1994 General Household Survey, London: HMSO.

ONS, Social Survey Division (1997) Living in Britain: results from the 1995 General Household Survey, London: The Stationery Office.

ONS, Social Survey Division (1997) Living in Britain: preliminary results from the 1995 General Household Survey, London: The Stationery Office.

ONS, Social Survey Division (2000) Living in Britain: results from the 1998 General Household Survey, London: The Stationery Office.

ONS, Social Survey Division (2001) Living in Britain: results from the 2000 General Household Survey, London: The Stationery Office.

Coulthard, M., Walker, A. and Morgan A. (2001) Assessing people's perceptions of their neighbourhood and community involvement, London: Health Development Agency.

ONS, Social Survey Division (2002) Disadvantaged households: results from the 2000 survey, London: Stationery Office.

ONS, Social Survey Division (2002) Living in Britain: results from the 2001 General Household Survey, London: The Stationery Office.

ONS, Social Survey Division (2002) People aged 65 and over: results of an independent study carried out on behalf of the Department of Health as part of the 2001 General Household Survey, London: The Stationery Office.

ONS, Social Survey Division (2002) People's perceptions of their neighbourhood and community involvement, London: The Stationery Office.

ONS, Social Survey Division (2002) Carers 2000, London: The Stationery Office.

ONS, Social and Vital Statistics Division (2003) Living in Britain: results from the 2002 General Household Survey, London: The Stationery Office.

ONS, Social and Vital Statistics Division (2003) Sports and leisure: results from the sports and leisure module of the 2002 General Household Survey, London: The Stationery Office.

ONS, Social and Vital Statistics Division (2004) Living in Britain: results from the 2003 General Household Survey.

Further information may be found on the Office for National Statistics General Lifestyle Survey webpages.

Resulting from secondary analysis:
Gilbert, G.N., Arber, S. and Dale, A. (1980) 'The General Household Survey', SSRC Survey Archive Bulletin, 16.

Arber, S., Gilbert, G.N. and Dale, A. (1981) 'Conversion of the GHS into SPSS compatible files', SSRC Survey Archive Bulletin, 20, pp.1-2.

Gilbert, G.N., Dale, A. and Arber, S. (1982) 'The crosslinker: a computer program for the analysis of hierarchical data sets using non-hierarchical analysis packages', SSRC Survey Archive Bulletin, 22, pp.7-10.

Gilbert, G.N., Dale, A. and Arber, S. (1983) 'The General Household Survey as a source for secondary analysis', Sociology, May, 17(2), pp.255-9.

Arber, S. et al. (1984) 'Surrey GHS datasets', SSRC Data Archive Bulletin, January.

Dale, A. et al. (1987) 'Time series analysis of the GHS', The General Household Survey Newsletter, no.3, pp.15-16.

Moss, P. and Owen, C. (1989-90) 'Use of pre-school daycare and education 1979-86', Children and Society, vol. 3/4, pp.296-310.

Arber, S. and Ginn, J. (1990) 'The meaning of informal care: gender and the contribution of elderly people', Ageing and Society 10(4), pp.429-54.

Arber, S. and Ginn, J. (1991) 'The invisiblity of age: gender and class in later life', Sociological Review 39(2), pp.260-291.

Arber, S. and Ginn, J. (1991) Gender and later life: a sociological analysis of resources and constraints, London: Sage.

Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1991) 'Gender, class and income inequalities in later life', British Journal of Sociology 42(3), pp.369-96.

Katz, L.F., Loveman, G.W. and Blanchflower, D.G., A comparison of changes in the structure of wages in four OECD countries (Conference on Differences and Changes in Wage Structures, Cambridge, MA, July 23-24 1992).

Askham, J. et al. (1992) Life after 60: a profile of Britain's older population, London: Age Concern Institute of Gerontology. ISBN 1-872342-60-4.

Arber, S. and Ginn, J. (1992) 'Class and caring: a forgotten dimension', Sociology 26(4), pp.619-34.

Arber, S. and Ginn, J. (1992) 'In sickness and in health: caregiving, gender and the independence of elderly people' in C. Marsh and S. Arber (eds.) Families and households: divisions and change, London: Macmillan, pp.86-105.

Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1992) 'Towards women's independence: pension systems in three contrasting European welfare states', Journal of European Social Policy 4(2), pp.255-77.

Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1992) 'Elderly people living alone: the relation of social and material resources to service use' in F. Laczko and C. Victor (eds.) Social policy and older people: community care in the 90s, Aldershot: Avebury.

Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1992) 'Gender and resources in later life', Sociology Review 2(2), pp.6-10.

Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1992) 'The transmission of income inequality: gender non-state pensions' in K. Morgan (ed.) Gerontology: responding to an ageing society, London: Jessica Kingsley, pp.63-83.

Ginn, J. (1992) 'Cultural stereotypes of older women' in J. Johnson and R. Slater (eds.) Ageing and later life, London: Sage/Open University, pp.60-67.

Arber, S. and Lahelma, E. (1993) 'Women, paid employment and ill-health in Britain and Finland', Acta Sociologica, 36, pp.121-138.

Arber, S. and Lahelma, E. (1993) 'Inequalities in women's and men's ill-health: Britain and Finland compared', Social Science and Medicine, 37(8), pp.1055-1068.

Arber, S. (1993) 'Chronic illness over the life course: chronic inequalities among men and women in Britain' in Abel, T. et al. (eds.) Medical sociology: research on chronic illness, Sozialwissenschaftliche Tagungsberichte Band 3, Bonn/Berlin: Informationszentrum Sozialwissenschaften.

Arber, S. and Evandrou, M. (1993) 'Mapping the territory ' in S. Arber and and M. Evandrou (eds.) Ageing, independence and the life course, London: Jessica Kingsley.

Blanchflower, D. and Oswald, A. (1993) International wage curves, CEP Discussion Paper No. 116, February.

Blanchflower, D.G. and Freeman, R.B., Did the Thatcher reforms change British labour performance?, NBER Working Paper Series No.4384, June 1993.

York Health Economics Consortium/Social Policy Research Unit, (1993) Department of Health initiative: caring for people living at home, Final report, University of York, July.

Payne, J., Payne, C., Heath, A. (1993) 'Modelling trends in multiway tables', in R. Davies and A. Dale (eds.) Analysing social and political change: a casebook of methods, London: Sage.

Waldfogel, J. (1993) Women working for less: a longitudinal analysis of the family gap, Welfare State Programmes Discussion Paper WSP/93, London School of Economics, September.

Barr, N. and Falkingham, J. (1993) Paying for learning, Welfare State Programme Discussion Paper WSP/94, London School of Economics, September.

Ginn, J. (1993) 'Pension statistics ignored', Radical Statistics 53, pp.13-15.

Ginn, J. (1993) 'Vanishing trick: how to make married women disappear from pension statistics', Radical Statistics 54, pp.37-43.

Ginn, J. (1993) 'Grey power: age-based organisations' response to structured inequalities', Critical Social Policy, 13(2), pp.23-47.

Arber, S. and Ginn, J. (1993) 'Class, caring and the life course' in S. Arber and M. Evandrou (eds.) Ageing, independence and the life course, London: Jessica Kingsley.

Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1993) 'Older women's working lives: household ties or new employment opportunities?' in G. Dunne, R. Blackburn and J. Jarman (eds.) Inequalities in employment, inequalities in home life, Cambridge: Sociological Research Group.

Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1993) 'Pension penalties: the gendered division of occupational welfare', Work, Employment and Society 7(1), pp.47-70.

Arber, S. and Ginn, J. (1993) 'The gendered resource triangle: health and resources in later life' in S. Platt, H. Thomas, G. Williams and S. Scott (eds.) Locating health: sociological and historical explanations, Aldershot: Avebury, pp.29-56.

Arber, S. and Ginn, J. (1993) 'Gender and inequalities in health in later life' in M. Stacey and V. Olensen (eds.) Social Science and Medicine special issue on 'Women, men and health' 36(1), pp.33-46.

Ginn, J. (1993) 'No jam tomorrow: why women are disadvantaged in occupational pensions' (exemplar C in chapter 13) in N. Gilbert (ed.) Researching social life, London: Sage, pp.270-86.

Machin, S. and Waldfogel, J. (1993?) The decline of the male breadwinner: changing shares of husbands' and wives' earnings in family income, Welfare State Programme Discussion Paper WSP/103, London School of Economics.

Hills, J. (with the LSE Welfare State Programme) (1993), The future of welfare: a guide to the debate, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, November.

Blanchflower, D.G., and Oswald, A.J. (1994) Estimating a wage curve for Britain 1973-1990, NBER Working Paper Series No. 4770, June.

Dressler, W. W. (1994) 'Social status and the health of families: a model', Social Science and Medicine, 39(12), pp.1605-1613.

Godfrey, C. and Hardman, C. (1994) Changing the social costs of alcohol: final report to the AERC, University of York, Centre for Health Economics, February.

Peggs, K., Will you still feed me when I'm 64? (Paper for presentation to the British Sociological Association Annual Conference, University of Central Lancashire, March 28th to 31st, 1994).

Owen, D. (1994) The earnings of minority ethnic groups in late 1980s Britain, National Ethnic Minority Data Archive Information Paper 94/1, April.

Peggs, K. (1994) London: the key facts, briefing paper about health and health care in London, London: King's Fund Institute, April.

Jarvis, C. and Hancock, R. (eds.) (1994), Data dictionary: General Household Survey 1979-1992, Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, King's College London, July.

Glover, J. and Arber, S., Polarisation in mothers' employment: occupational class, age of youngest child, employment rights and work-hours (Paper presented to the Work, Employment and Society conference, University of Kent, UK, September 12-14 1994).

Hancock, R. and Weir, P. (1994) Pensioners' incomes in Great Britain, 1979-1989: detailed analyses of the General Household and Family Expenditure Surveys, Age Concern Institute of Gerontology Working Paper No. 7 (revised version), September.

Ginn, J. and Dugard P. (1994) 'Statistics: a gendered agenda', Radical Statistics 58, pp.2-14.

Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1994) 'Women's independent and derived pensions compared in Britain and Denmark' in H. Peemans-Poullet and J. Carton de Tournai (eds.) L'individualisation des droits dans le secteur des pensions des travailleurs salaries, Brussels: Universite des Femmes.

Ginn, J. (1994) 'Linking family data in the General Household Survey: mid-life women's employment contextualised', General Household Survey Newsletter, Colchester: ESRC Data Archive.

Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1994) 'Gender and pensions in Europe: current trends in women's pension acquisition' in P. Brown and R. Crompton (eds.) A new Europe: economic restructuring and social exclusion, London: UCL Press, pp.57-84.

Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1994) 'Heading for hardship: how the British pension system has failed women' in S. Baldwin and J. Falkingham (eds.) Social security and social change: new challenges to the Beveridge model, Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Arber, S. and Ginn, J. (1994) 'Women and aging', Reviews in Clinical Gerontology 4(4), pp.93-102.

Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1994) 'Midlife women's employment and pension entitlement in relation to coresident adult children in Great Britain', Journal of Marriage and the Family, November, pp.813-9.

Astin, M. and Corden, A. (1994) Caring for people at home, demand estimation - log-linear analysis (logit model) of the 1991 GHS data, University of York Social Policy Research Unit, December.

Astin, M., Corden, A., and Slack, R. (1995) 'Estimating the need for care at home: a tool for local authorities?', Research, Policy and Planning 13(1/2), pp. 25-28.

Arber, S. and Ginn, J. (1995) 'The mirage of gender equality: occupational success in the labour market and within marriage', British Journal of Sociology 46(1), March, pp.21-43.

Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1995) 'Exploring mid-life women's employment', Sociology 29(1), February, pp.73-94.

Arber, S. and Ginn, J. (1995) 'Gender differences in informal caring', Health and Social Care in the Community 3, pp.19-31.

Gregg, P. and Wadsworth, J. (1995) 'A short history of labour turnover, job tenure, and job security, 1975-93', Oxford Review of Economic Policy 11(1), pp.73-90.

Harkness, S., Machin, S., and Waldfogel, J. (1995) Evaluating the pin-money hypothesis: the relationship between women's labour market activity, family income and poverty in Britain, Welfare State Programme Discussion Paper WSP/108, London School of Economics.

King's Fund Policy Institute (1995) 'Education, economic prosperity and health', Society and Health 3, Summer, pp. 1-5.

Murphy, M. (1995) 'Sterilization as a method of contraception: recent trends in Great Britain and their implications', Journal of Biosocial Science 27, pp. 31-46.

Blacktop, J. (1995) The influence of age, sex and educational attainment on employment status and income, Research Report Series RR9506, University of Huddersfield, August.

Arber, S. and Ginn, J. (1995) 'Gender differences in the relationship between paid employment and informal care', Work, Employment and Society 9(3), September, pp.445-471.

Arber, S. and Ginn, J. (1995) 'Choice and constraint in the retirement of older married women' in S. Arber and J. Ginn (eds.) Connecting gender and ageing: a sociological approach, Buckingham: Open University Press, September.

Glover, J. and Arber, S. (1995) 'Polarization in mothers' employment', Gender, Work and Organization 2(4), October, pp.165-179.

Burrows, R. and Nettleton, S. (1995) 'Going against the grain: smoking and 'heavy' drinking amongst the British middle classes', Sociology of Health and Illness 17(5), November.

Forrest, R. et al.., Home ownership in the United Kingdom: the potential for growth?, London: Council of Mortgage Lenders, November.

Hancock, R., Jarvis, C. and Mueller, G. (1995) The outlook for incomes in retirement: social trends and attitudes, Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, King's College London, December.

Harkness, S. (1996) 'The gender earnings gap: evidence from the UK', Fiscal Studies, 17(2), pp.1-36.

Disney, R., and Stears, G. (1996) Why is there a decline in defined benefit pension plan membership in Britain? Working Paper Series No. W96/4, Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Evandrou, M. (1996) 'Employment, care and unpaid work: the socio- economic position of informal carers in Britain', in J.Phillips (ed.) Working carers, Avebury Press.

Holmans, A., and Frosztega, M. (1996) Negative equity: information from household interview surveys, Dept. of Environment Occasional Paper, London: Dept. of Environment, June.

Holmans, A., and Frosztega, M. (1996) Housing equity withdrawal: information from household interview surveys, Dept. of Environment Occasional Paper, London: Dept. of Environment, June.

Duncan, A., and Giles, C. (1996) 'Should we subsidise pre-school childcare, and if so, how?', Fiscal Studies 17(3), August, pp.39-61.

Bartley, M., and Owen, C. (1996) 'Relations between socioeconomic status, employment and health during economic change, 1973-93', British Medical Journal 313, 24th August, pp.445-449.

Evandrou, M. (1996) 'Unpaid work, carers and health' in D. Blane, E. Brunner, and R. Wilkinson (eds.) Health and social organisation: towards a health policy for the 21st century, London: Routledge.

Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1996) 'Gender, age and attitudes to retirement in mid-life', Ageing and Society 16, pp.27-55.

Lampard, R., and Peggs, K. (1996) Couple formation after the end of marriage or cohabitation: issues of gender and parenthood (paper presented to British Society for Population Studies Conference), Department of Sociology, University of Warwick.

Arber, S. (1996) 'Integrating nonemployment into research on health inequalities', International Journal of Health Services 26(3), pp. 445-481.

Richards, E. (with T. Wilsdon and S. Lyons), (1996) Paying for long-term care, London: Institute for Public Policy Research.

Smith, H. (1996) Recent changes in the working roles of men and women: a management report, research paper, School of Computing and Mathematics, University of Huddersfield.

Harmon, C. and Walker, I. (1996) The marginal and average returns to schooling, IFS Working Paper Series No. W96/11, Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Jarvis, C., Hancock, R., Askham, J., Tinker, A. (1996) Getting around after 60: a profile of Britain's older population, London: Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, King's College London/HMSO. ISBN 0-11-321966-0.

Smaje, C. and Le Grand, J. (1997) 'Ethnicity, equity and health care in the British health service', Social Science and Medicine, 45(3), pp.485-496.

Davies, H., Joshi, H. and Clarke, L. (1997) 'Is it cash the deprived are short of?', Jnl. of the Royal Statistical Society A 160(1), pp.107-126.

Jarvis, C., and Hancock, R. (1997) 'Trends in volunteering and implications for the future' in C.Pharaoh (ed.) Dimensions of the voluntary sector: key facts and figures, analysis and trends, King's Hill, West Malling, Kent: Charities Aid Foundation. ISBN 1-85934-035-0.

Denny, K.J., Harmon, C.P. and Roche, M.J. (1997) The distribution of discrimination in immigrant earnings - evidence from Britain 1974-93, IFS Working Paper No. W97/19, Institute for Fiscal Studies, August.

McMeekin, A. and Tomlinson, M. (1997) The diffusion of household durables in the UK, CRIC discussion paper no.4, September, Centre for Research on Innovation and Competition.

Jarvis, C. (1997) Past, present and future trends in old age morbidity in Great Britain, Working paper no.10, Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, King's College London, November. ISBN 1-872342-96-5.

Arber, S. (1997) Insights about the non-employed, class and health: evidence from the General Household Survey, in D.Rose and K.O'Reilly (eds.) Constructing classes: towards a new social classification for the UK, Swindon: ONS/ESRC.

Ginn, J. (1997) 'Les contrats entre generations et entre sexes sont-ild preserves ou menaces par la privatisation des retraites?', Retraite et Societe, 20, pp.40-61.

Burden, R. (1998) Vulnerable consumer groups: quantification and analysis, Research Paper 15, OFT 219, Hayes, Middlesex: Office of Fair Trading.

Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1998) 'Playing politics with pension statistics: legitimising privatisation' in D.Dorling and S. Simpson (eds.) Statistics in society: the arithmetic of politics, chapter 15, London: Arnold.

Arber, S. and Ginn, S. (1998) 'Health and illness in later life' in D. Field and S. Taylor (eds.) Sociological perspectives on health, illness and health care, Blackwell.

Cooper, H., Arber, S. and Smaje, C. (1998) 'Social class or deprivation ? Structural factors and children's limiting longstanding illness in the 1990s', Sociology of Health and Illness, 20(3), pp.289-311.

Jarvis, C. (1998) Trends in old age cohort morbidity in Great Britain, Working Paper No.11, Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, King's College London, February.

Peggs, K., Women, state pensions and poverty in the UK, paper presented at International Sociological Association XIV World Congress of Sociology, Montreal, Canada, July 26-August 1, 1998.

Banks, J. and Tanner, S. (1998) Modelling voluntary labour supply, IFS Working Paper No. W98/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Papasolomontos, C. and Christie, T. (1998) 'Using national surveys: a review of secondary analyses with special reference to education', Educational Research, 40(3), Winter, pp.295-309.

McMeekin, A. and Tomlinson, M. (1998) 'Diffusion with distinction: the diffusion of household durables in the UK', Futures, 30(9), pp.873-886.

Carmichael, F. and Charles, S. (1998) 'The labour market costs of community care', Journal of Health Economics, vol.17, pp.747-765.

Gershuny, J.I. and Fisher, K. (1999) Leisure in the UK across the 20th century, Working Papers of the ESRC Research Centre on Micro-social Change no. 99-3, ISER, University of Essex.

Evans, J.L. and Pentecost, E.J. (1999) 'Economic performance across the UK regions: convergence or divergence?', Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, vol.16, pp.649-658.

Cooper, H., Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1999) Health-related behaviour and attitudes of older people: secondary analysis of national datasets, London: HEA.

Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1999) 'Women's pension poverty: prospects and options for change' in S. Walby (ed.) New agendas for women, London: Macmillan.

Ginn, J. and Arber, S. (1999) 'Changing patterns of pension inequality: the shift from state to private resources', Ageing and Society, 19(3), pp.319-342.

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