|The overall objective of this research project was to explore and demonstrate whether the potential of the new technological capabilities of satellites can actually provide a rigorous, legally-reliable, and cost effective tool in inspection and compliance regimes under contemporary environmental legislation. The main aims were:
Surveys of regulated communities in Australia were conducted to examine reactions to being monitored by satellites. Semi-structured interviews were held with government, farming bodies, judges, lawyers and NGOs. The qualitative data are not available for secondary analysis due to consent issues.
- to consider lessons from Australian experiences as to whether new high resolution satellite imagery can now be used as an environmental monitoring and compliance tool
- to assess the operational effectiveness of existing Australian state satellite monitoring programmes (legal compliance, political, economic, technical and spatial, capabilities of regulators) and any constraints affecting its use as a compliance tool or lessons learnt in the Australian context
- to investigate the awareness and attitudes of those regulated this way and evaluate how knowledge of being monitored by satellites is likely to influence compliance behaviour of those subject to regulation
- to analyse whether satellite monitoring is seen as more or less desirable than conventional forms of inspection, whether it is seen as more confrontational method of regulation, and the impact on relationships and confidence it might have between those subject to regulation, regulatory authorities, policy makers and the community
- to derive principles that can inform and advance debate in the UK, EU and amongst a wide international audience as to the merits of using satellites primarily as a compliance tool in the area of environmental legal systems, but also with implications for other legal monitoring as well
Further information and publications are available from the Smart Enforcement in Environmental Legal Systems: A Socio-Legal Analysis of Regulatory Satellite Monitoring in Australia ESRC Award web page.