UK Data Service data catalogue record for:
|Title:||British Election Panel Study, 1997-2001; Waves 1 to 8|
|Alternative title:||BEPS 2|
|Series:||British Election Study [British Election Studies, 1969-]|
|Depositor:||Thomson, K., National Centre for Social Research|
Heath, A., University of Oxford. Nuffield College
Jowell, R., National Centre for Social Research
Curtice, J.K., University of Strathclyde
National Centre for Social Research
Economic and Social Research Council
P1573, P1704, P1714, P1875, P1995, P2052, P2066, P2065
Geoffrey Evans, Nuffield College and Robert Andersen, Department of Sociology, University of Oxford. ESRC funding was received via the Centre for Research into Elections and Social Trends (CREST), an ESRC funded research centre linking the National Centre for Social Research in London with the Department of Sociology, University of Oxford.
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Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.The British Election Panel Studies are designed to analyse political change - to discover when and why voters change their political allegiances during an electoral cycle, and in response to what events. They examine voting or abstentions in local government and European elections as well as fluctuations in party support during the lead-up to general elections.
The British General Election Panel Study 1997-2001 followed respondents to the 1997 British General Election Study and re-interviewed them at intervals until the 2001 election. Face-to-face rounds took place each spring/summer after the local and/or European elections, with the final wave coming after the 2001 general election. Three telephone/postal rounds were conducted in autumn 1997, autumn 2000 and in May 2001, during the 2001 general election campaign. The dataset includes all eight waves.
The study follows a similar panel conducted over the period 1992-1997 (the British Election Panel Study 1992-1997, held under SN:3888). The main aim of this study is to analyse political change within the electorate over the period between two panels.
The file (beps9701.por) contains data from all eight waves of the panel:
Wave 1: 1997: 3,615 respondents to the 1997 British General Election Study;
Wave 2: 1997: 2,989 respondents to the autumn 1997 telephone/postal wave;
Wave 3: 1998: 2,807 respondents to the spring/summer 1998 face-to-face wave;
Wave 4: 1999: 2,570 respondents to the spring/summer 1999 face-to-face wave.
Wave 5: 2000: 2,400 respondents to the spring/summer 2000 face-to-face wave.
Wave 6: 2000: 2,293 respondents to the autumn 2000 telephone/postal wave.
Wave 7: 2001: 2,300 respondents to the spring 2001 telephone/postal wave.
Wave 8: 2001: 2.300 respondents to the spring/summer 2001 face-to-face final wave.
The sample includes a Scottish boost.
The topics covered include: Newspaper readership and campaigns, electoral registration, media exposure, party preference, local elections, party images, leader images, assessment of Conservative government, European Union, Northern Ireland, nuclear weapons, nationalism, ethnic minorities, women's rights, abortion, trade unions, political trust, economic evaluations, political knowledge, class identity/constitutional issues, unemployment and inflation, taxation, government services, nationalisation, privatisation, redistribution of income. Demographic information was also gathered.
BGES Left-Right scale: wave 1 self-completion questions 3a, b, e, f, g, 4a; wave 3 questions T181-T186; wave 5 questions V249-254: wave 8 self-completion questions 1a, b, c, d, e, f.
BGES Libertarian-Authoritarian scale: wave 1 self-completion questions 3c, 3d and 4b-e: wave 8 self-completion questions 2a, b, c, d, e, f.
|Dates of fieldwork:||
Wave 1: May - August 1997
Wave 2: September - November 1997
Wave 3: May - August 1998
Wave 4: June - August 1999
Wave 5: May - July 2000
Wave 6: November - December 2000
Wave 7: May 2001
Wave 8: June - September 2001
Local Authority Districts
Standard Statistical Regions
Westminster Parliamentary Constituencies
|Kind of data:||
Individual (micro) level
Adults aged 18 years and over (in 1997) living in private households in Great Britain, including a Scottish booster with addresses north of the Great Glen/Caledonian Canal.
Simple random sample; Multi-stage stratified random sample
random probability sample; Check against electoral register, link to census data.
|Number of units:||(Y) 1763 (obtained) Weighted sample size wave 8 (electors only)|
|Method of data collection:||
Face-to-face interview; Telephone interview; Postal survey; Self-completion
|Weighting:||No information recorded|
|ATTITUDES||BLACK PEOPLE||BRITISH POLITICAL PARTIES|
|BUSINESSES||CANVASSING||CARE OF THE SICK|
|CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS||CHILD CARE||CITIZENSHIP|
|CLASS CONFLICT||CLASS SIZE||CLOTHING|
|COMMONWEALTH||CONSERVATIVE PARTY (GREAT BRITAIN)||COUNCIL TAX|
|CULTURAL IDENTITY||CULTURAL INTEGRATION||CURRENCIES|
|CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS||DEATH PENALTY||DECENTRALIZED GOVERNMENT|
|ECONOMIC ACTIVITY||ECONOMIC COMPETITION||ECONOMIC CONDITIONS|
|ECONOMIC VALUE||EDUCATION||EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURE|
|EDUCATIONAL FINANCE||ELDERLY||ELECTION CAMPAIGNS|
|ELECTIONS||ELECTORAL RECORDS||ELECTORAL SYSTEMS|
|EMPLOYMENT HISTORY||EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMMES||EMPLOYMENT|
|ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE||EQUAL OPPORTUNITY||EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW|
|ETHNIC GROUPS||ETHNIC MINORITIES||EUROPEAN UNION|
|EXPENDITURE||FAITH SCHOOLS||FATHER'S ECONOMIC ACTIVITY|
|FATHER'S OCCUPATION||FATHER'S OCCUPATIONAL STATUS||FATHERS|
|FINANCIAL COMMITMENTS||FINANCIAL EXPECTATIONS||FINANCIAL RESOURCES|
|FOREIGN RELATIONS||FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION||GENDER|
|GIFTS||GOVERNMENT MINISTERS||GOVERNMENT POLICY|
|GREAT BRITAIN||GREATER LONDON||GREEN PARTY (UNITED KINGDOM)|
|HEADS OF GOVERNMENT||HEALTH SERVICES||HOME OWNERSHIP|
|HOMOSEXUALITY||HOSPITAL WAITING LISTS||HOURS OF WORK|
|HOUSING TENURE||ILL HEALTH||IMMIGRANTS|
|IMMIGRATION||INCOME DISTRIBUTION||INCOME TAX|
|JOB HUNTING||JOB SECURITY||JUDGMENTS (LEGAL)|
|LABOUR PARTY (GREAT BRITAIN)||LANDLORDS||LANGUAGES AND LINGUISTICS EDUCATION|
|LANGUAGES USED AT HOME||LANGUAGES||LAW ENFORCEMENT|
|LIBERAL DEMOCRATS (GREAT BRITAIN)||LIFE STYLES||LOCAL GOVERNMENT|
|LOCAL PRESS||LOWER HOUSE||MANAGERS|
|MARITAL STATUS||MASS MEDIA||MAYORS|
|MEDICAL INSURANCE||MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT||MEMBERSHIP|
|MIDDLE CLASS||MINIMUM WAGES||MORAL BEHAVIOUR|
|MOTHER TONGUE||MOTHER'S OCCUPATION||MOTHER'S OCCUPATIONAL STATUS|
|MOTHERS||MOTOR VEHICLES||NATIONAL ECONOMY|
|NATIVE LANGUAGES EDUCATION||NEIGHBOURHOODS||NEWS ITEMS|
|NEWSPAPER READERSHIP||NEWSPAPERS||NORTHERN IRELAND|
|NUCLEAR WEAPONS||OCCUPATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS||PLACE OF BIRTH|
|PLACE OF RESIDENCE||PLAID CYMRU||POLITICAL ALLEGIANCE|
|POLITICAL ATTITUDES||POLITICAL AWARENESS||POLITICAL COALITIONS|
|POLITICAL CORRUPTION||POLITICAL EXTREMISM||POLITICAL INFLUENCE|
|POLITICAL INTEREST||POLITICAL ISSUES||POLITICAL LEADERS|
|POLITICAL POWER||POLITICAL SYSTEMS||POLITICAL UNIFICATION|
|PRISON SENTENCES||PRIVATE EDUCATION||PRIVATE SECTOR|
|PUBLIC ENTERPRISES||PUBLIC EXPENDITURE||PUBLIC OWNERSHIP|
|PUBLIC SECTOR||QUALIFICATIONS||RACIAL CONFLICT|
|RACIAL PREJUDICE||RADIO NEWS||REFERENDUM PARTY (GREAT BRITAIN)|
|REFERENDUMS||REGIONAL GOVERNMENT||REHABILITATION (SOCIAL OFFENDERS)|
|RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION||RELIGIOUS ATTENDANCE||RELIGIOUS CONFLICT|
|RENTED ACCOMMODATION||REPUBLIC OF IRELAND||RESIDENTIAL CARE OF THE ELDERLY|
|SCOTTISH NATIONAL PARTY||SELECTIVE SCHOOLS||SELF-EMPLOYED|
|SOCIAL HOUSING||SOCIAL INEQUALITY||SOCIAL JUSTICE|
|SOCIAL PROTEST||SOCIAL SERVICES||SOCIAL WELFARE|
|SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS||SPOUSE'S ECONOMIC ACTIVITY||SPOUSE'S EMPLOYMENT|
|SPOUSE'S OCCUPATION||SPOUSE'S OCCUPATIONAL STATUS||SPOUSES|
|STANDARD OF LIVING||STATE HEALTH SERVICES||STATE RESPONSIBILITY|
|TENANTS' HOME PURCHASING||TOLERANCE||TRADE UNION MEMBERSHIP|
|UNITED KINGDOM||UPPER HOUSE||VOTING BEHAVIOUR|
|WOMEN'S ROLE||WORKERS PARTICIPATION||WORKERS' RIGHTS|
|WORKING CLASS||YOUTH EMPLOYMENT|
|Date of release:|
|First edition:||01 October 1999|
|Latest edition:||24 July 2002 (4th Edition)|
|Copyright:||Copyright National Centre for Social Research|
|Access conditions:||The depositor has specified that registration is not required.|
|Please note:||These data are available to any user for any purpose under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence (CC BY 4.0)|
|Availability:||UK Data Service|
|Contact:||Get in touch|
Zip files contain data, documentation and licence details
|SPSS (Zip)||4390[MD5Checksum: D6DC1F75972CDBDD62BAA352B17DB249]|
|Stata (Zip)||4155[MD5Checksum: 9FE8ACDD33413B2B3DBE9E2FD213B7B4]|
|Tab-delimited (Zip)||4464[MD5Checksum: FD7AD5899BBA5BF21B9590F78D873CA6]|
|Title||File Name||Size (KB)|
|User Guide Part 3: Waves 6, 7, 8 and SIC 92 Codes||a4028ucb.pdf||1123|
|User Guide Part 1: Notes for Users, Cross-section Survey and Wave 1||b4028uab.pdf||453|
|User Guide Part 2: Waves 2, 3, 4 and 5||b4028ubb.pdf||525|
|Study information and citation||UKDA_Study_4028_Information.htm||6|
By principal investigator(s):
British Election Study, (1974) The British Election Study panel sample 1974: methodological study, June.
British Election Study, (1974) The British Election Survey: technical document, July.
Crewe, I., Sarlvik, B. and Alt, J., (1974) `The why and how of the February voting', New Society, 12 September.
Crewe, I., Sarlvik, B. and Alt, J., (1974) The flow of the vote 1970 February 1974 - October 1974.
Sarlvik, B., Crewe, I. and Alt, J., (1974) Class and Party in the elections of 1974.
Crewe, I., Sarlvik, B. and Alt, J., The decline of the two-party system, paper presented to Political Studies Association Conference, Oxford, March 1975.
British Election Study, (1975) The British Election Study of October 1974: methodological report, April.
British Election Study, (1975) The British Referendum Survey: a report on fieldwork for the Referendum Recall Study, August.
Fox, A., (1975) `Attitudes to immigration: a comparison of data from the 1970 and 1974 general election surveys', New Community Vol. IV (2), Summer.
Miller, W., (1975) Series of articles on the special Scottish surveys, The Scotsman, October 10 and 12.
Sarlvik, B., et al, (1976) `Britain's membership of the EEC: a profile of electoral opinions in the spring of 1974 - with a postscript on the referendum', European Journal of Political Science Vol. 4 (1), March, pp.83-113.
Fox, A. and Alt, J., The reliability of occupational coding, paper presented to SSRC Seminar on Longitudinal Studies, Cambridge, March 1976.
Crewe, I., Sarlvik, B. and Alt, J., The erosion of partisanship 1964 - 1975, paper presented to the Political Studies Association Conference, Nottingham, March 1976.
Alt, J., Personal well-being and economic trends in Britain, paper presented to ECPR Workshop on Protest, Dissatisfaction and Change, ECPR Joint Sessions, Louvain-la-Neuve, April 1976.
Alt, J., Sarlvik, B. and Crewe, I., (1976) `Partisanship and policy choice: issue preferences in the British electorate, February 1974', British Journal of Political Science, 6(3), July.
Alt, J., Sarlvik, B. and Crewe, I., (1976) `Individual differences scaling and group attitude structures', Quantity and Quality, Vol.10, December.
Crewe, I., Sarlvik, B. and Alt, J., (1976) `The election of February 1974' IN R. Rose (ed.), Studies in British Politics, 3rd edition, London: Macmillan.
Crewe, I., Fox, A. and Alt, J., (1977) `Non-voting in British general elections 1966 - October 1974' IN C. Crouch (ed.), British Political Sociology Yearbook: Vol. III, Political Participation, London: Croom Helm.
Miller, W., (1977) `The connection between SNP voting and the demand for Scottish self government', The European Journal of Political Research, 5(1), March.
Crewe, I., Sarlvik, B. and Alt, J., (1977) `Partisan dealignment in Britain 1964 - 1974', British Journal of Political Science, 7(2), April.
Alt, J., Crewe, I. and Sarlvik, B., (1977) `Angels in plastic: Liberal support in 1974', Political Studies, 25(3), September.
Crewe, I. and Sarlvik, B., (1979) `The Conservative Party and the electorate', IN T.L. Henry (ed.), Conservative Party politics, London: Macmillan.
Alt, J.E., (1979) The politics of economic decline, Cambridge University Press.
Crewe, I.M. and Sarlvik, B., (1979) `Popular attitudes and electoral strategy' IN Z. Layton-Henry (ed.), Conservative Party politics, London: Macmillan.
Crewe, I.M., (1980) `Why the Conservatives Won', in H. Penniman (ed.), Britain at the Polls, American Enterprise Institute.
Crewe, I.M., Negative partisanship: some preliminary ideas using British data, Paper presented to European Consortium for Political Research, Florence, March, 1980.
Crewe, I.M., (1980) `Prospects for party realignment: an Anglo-American comparison' Comparative Politics, 12(4), July.
Crewe, I.M., The electoral decline of the Labour Party, paper presented to Conference on the Politics of the Labour Party, Nuffield College, Oxford, September 1980.
British Election Study, (1980) A comparison of respondent's characteristics with known population parameters, Technical paper 1980:1.
British Election Study, (1980) The British Election Study, May 1979 questionnaire, Technical paper 1980:2.
British Election Study, (1981) A description of surveys conducted by the BES Research Project, Technical paper 1981:1.
British Election Study, (1981) Questionnaire continuity guide, Technical paper 1981:2.
Crewe, I.M., (1981) `The Labour Party and the electorate', in D.A. Kavanagh (ed.), The politics of the Labour Party, London: Allen Unwin.
Sarlvik, B., Crewe, I.M., and Robertson, D., Why the parties were liked and disliked in the 1979 Election: an analysis of `Free Answer' survey data, paper presented to the Political Studies Association Conference, Hull, April 1981.
Crewe, I.M., Electoral Volatility in Britain Since 1945, paper presented to the European Consortium for Political Research, Lancaster, 1981.
Crewe, I.M., Party and the public, paper presented to the Hansard Society/American Enterprise Institute Conference on the Role of Political Parties, Ditchley Park, Oxfordshire, May 1981.
Heath, A.F. and MacDonald, S-K., (1988) `The demise of party identification theory?' Electoral Studies, 7, pp.95-107.
Swaddle, K. and Heath, A. (1987) Official and reported turnout in the British General Election of 1987, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
Heath, A., (1991) Understanding political change : voting behaviour in Britain 1964-1987, Oxford: Pergamon.
Heath, A.F. and Pierce, R. (1992) 'It was party identification all along : question-order effects on reports of party identification in Britain' Electoral Studies, II.
Heath, A., et al, (eds.) (1993) Labour's last chance : the 1992 election and beyond, Aldershot: Dartmouth.
Heath, A., Jowell, R. and Curtice, J. (2001) The rise of New Labour: party policies and voter choices, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brook, L. and Taylor, B. (1996) British Election Panel Study 1992-95: Interim technical notes, CREST Working Paper 41.
Taylor, B., Heath, A. and Lynn, P. (1996) The British Election Panel Study 1992-95: Response characteristics and attrition, CREST Working Paper 40.
Surridge, P. et al, (1998) `The Scottish electorate and the Scottish parliament' Scottish Affairs special issue.
Saggar, S. (ed.) (1998) Race and British electoral politics, London: UCL Press.
Thomson, K., Park, A. and Brook, L. (1999) British General Election Study 1997: Cross-section Survey, Scottish Election Study, and Ethnic Minority Election Study, London: National Centre for Social Research.
Sanders, D., Clarke, H., Stewart, M.C. and Whiteley, P. (2010) 'Simulating the effects of the Alternative Vote in the 2010 UK General Election', Parliamentary Affairs, 64(1), pp.5-23.
Whiteley, P., Clarke, H., Sanders, D., and Stewart, M.C. (2010) 'Government performance and life satisfaction in contemporary Britain', Journal of Politics, 27(3), pp. 733-746.
Whiteley, P., Clarke, H., Sanders, D., and Stewart, M.C. (2010) 'Do institutions really influence participation? Contextual influences on turnout and participation in the world’s democracies', International Journal of Market Research, 52(1), pp.21-42.
Whiteley, P., Clarke, H., Sanders, D., and Stewart, M.C. (2010) 'Polling and forecasting the General Election of 2010', International Journal of Market Research, 52(5), pp.687-691.
Sanders, D., Clarke, H., Stewart, M.C. and Whiteley, P. (2011) 'Downs, Stokes and the dynamics of electoral choice', British Journal of Political Science, 41(2), pp.287-314.
Whiteley, P., Clarke, H., Sanders, D., and Stewart, M.C. (2011) 'Britain says NO: Voting in the AV ballot referendum', Parliamentary Affairs, November, pp.1-22.
Clarke, H., Sanders, D., Stewart, M.C. and Whiteley, P. (2013) Campaigning for change – the dynamics of electoral choice in Britain, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Resulting from secondary analysis:
Taylor-Gooby, P. (1987) `Welfare attitudes : cleavage, consensus and citizenship' The Quarterly Journal of Social Affairs, 3(3), pp.199-211.
Rabinowitz, G., Macdonald, S.E. and Listhaug, O., Competing theories of issue voting : is discounting the explanation?, paper prepared for delivery at the Annual Meeting of American Political Science Association, Washington DC, September 2-5 1993.
Baker, J.R. et.al., Looking at Legislatures : citizens' knowledge and perceptions of legislatures in Canada, Great Britain and the United States, paper prepared for delivery at the 16th International Congress of the International Political Science Association (RC8:2), Berlin, August 21-25 1994.
Baker, J.E. et al (1996) `Citizens' knowledge and perceptions of legislatures in Canada, Britain and the United States' The Journal of Legislative Studies, 2(2), pp.44-62.
Kobori, M. (1996) `A study on the North-South divide in Britain of 80s : with reference to the difference of Labour's votes between the North and South' Ryudai Law Review, 56, May, pp.72-104.
Bennett, S., Flickinger, R., and Rhine, S. Political talk - over here, over there and over time : a comparative analysis of who talks about politics in Britain and the United States, 1959-1994, paper presented to the International Society of Political Psychology meeting, Vancouver, June 30th-July 3rd 1996.
Evans, G. and Norris, P. (1999) Critical elections: British parties and voters in long-term perspective, London: Sage Publications.
Tunstall, H. et al (2000) 'Geographical scale, the 'feel-good factor' and voting at the 1997 general election in England and Wales' Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 25, p.51-64.
Dardanelli, P. (2001) The Europeanisation of regionalisation: European integration and public support for self-government in Scotland 1979/1997, Queen's Papers on Europeanisation, No. 5/2001, London School of Economics.
Skrondal, A. and Rabe-Hesketh, S. (2003) 'Multilevel logistic regression for polytomous data and rankings' Psychometrika, 68(2), pp.267-287.
A subset of BES 1997 data has been used for the following textbook:
Tarling, R. (2008) Statistical modelling for social researchers: principles and practice, Oxford: Routledge. ISBN: 978-0-415-44840-6. The book's companion web site includes downloadable datasets and further information: retrieved 26 January, 2009, from http://www.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415448406/links.asp.
Steven, M. (2010) Christianity and party politics: keeping the faith, London: Routledge, December. ISBN 978-0-415-55660-6.
Upton, G.J.G. (2016) Categorical data analysis by example, Oxford: Wiley. ISBN: 978-1-119-30786-0.