UK Data Service data catalogue record for:

Socio-Economic Position and Political Support of Black and Ethnic Minority Groups in the United Kingdom, 1972-2005

Title details

SN: 5666
Title: Socio-Economic Position and Political Support of Black and Ethnic Minority Groups in the United Kingdom, 1972-2005
Persistent identifier: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-5666-1
Depositor: Li, Y., University of Manchester. Institute for Social Change
Principal investigator(s): Li, Y., University of Birmingham. Department of Sociology
Heath, A., University of Oxford. Department of Sociology
Sponsor(s): Economic and Social Research Council
Grant number: RES-163-25-0003
Other acknowledgements: Jane Roberts, University of Oxford, helped with source data.


The citation for this study is:

Li, Y., Heath, A. (2008). Socio-Economic Position and Political Support of Black and Ethnic Minority Groups in the United Kingdom, 1972-2005. [data collection]. 2nd Edition. UK Data Service. SN: 5666,

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Subject Categories

Ethnic minorities - Social stratification and groupings
General - Employment and labour
Social and occupational mobility - Social stratification and groupings


Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.

The aims of the project were to conduct a systematic research on the labour market position of the minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom; to compare the inter- and intra-generational experience of the minority ethnic groups in the British labour market both amongst themselves and between these groups and the white British population; to assess the extent and the nature of 'ethnic penalty', particularly as experienced by 'second generation' minority ethnic citizens; and to provide evidence for the debate between human capital and social capital theories on ethnic disadvantages and for policy-making.

The project utilised data from the General Household Survey (GHS) and Labour Force Survey (LFS) series (held at the UK Data Archive under GNs 33090 and 33246 respectively). Key variables were standardised over time, using the GHS from 1972 and the LFS from 1983, and variables covering ethnicity, generation status, age, marital status, educational qualifications, employment status, class, earnings from the labour market, number of children in family unit, and hours of work were used. A set of 18 derived variables were produced, which are included in this dataset. For further details of methodology, see documentation.

For the second edition (June 2008), an updated version of the data file was deposited. The new file includes GHS 2005 data and two new variables covering source (LFS/GHS), and age respondent left full-time education. The documentation is unchanged.

Main Topics:
The 18 derived variables in the dataset cover year, age, gender, marital status, economic status, social class, education, ethnic groups, periods of unemployment, children, working time, pay, length of time resident in the United Kingdom, data source (LFS/GHS) and age left full-time education.

Coverage, universe, methodology

Dates of fieldwork: September 1972 - December 2005
Country: United Kingdom
Spatial units: Government Office Regions
Observation units: Individuals
Kind of data: Numeric data
Individual (micro) level
Universe: National
Respondents to the GHS between 1972-2005 and the LFS between 1983-2005.
Time dimensions: Cross-sectional (one-time) study
Uses data from the GHS and LFS repeated cross-sectional studies.
Sampling procedures: Multi-stage stratified random sample
Number of units: 4,617,267 cases
Method of data collection: Compilation or synthesis of existing material
Weighting: No weighting used.
Data sources: The dataset was based on data from the GHS and LFS. See documentation for further details.

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Administrative and access information

Date of release:
First edition: 02 July 2007
Latest edition: 13 June 2008 (2nd Edition)
Copyright: Copyright Y. Li and A. Heath. Original data from the General Household Survey and the Labour Force Survey remain Crown copyright. Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland
Access conditions: The depositor has specified that registration is required. Available to all registered users. The depositor may be informed about usage.
Availability: UK Data Service
Contact: Get in touch


Title File Name Size (KB)
User Guide 5666userguide.pdf 4606
Study information and citation UKDA_Study_5666_Information.htm 19
READ File read5666.htm 12


View publications... Hide publications...

By principal investigator(s):
Li, Y. and Heath, A. (2007) 'Ethnic minority men in the British labour market 1972-2005', International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy.

Li, Y. and Heath, A. (2007) 'Employment status of 1st and 2nd generation minority ethnic groups in Britain: a tale of 35 years', ESRC Britain Today, March, p.95.

Li, Y. and Heath, A. (2007) 'Minority ethnic groups in the British labour market 1972-2005: exploring patterns, trends and processes of minority ethnic disadvantages', UPTAP Bulletin, ESRC.

Heath, A. and Li, Y. (2007) Measuring the size of the employer contribution to the ethnic minority employment gap, consultation paper for NEP.

Li, Y. (2007) Assessing data needs and gaps for researching ethnic minority entrepreneurship, consultation paper for the ESRC/DTI/CRE/EMDA.

Resulting from secondary analysis:


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