UK Data Service data catalogue record for:
|Title:||Living Costs and Food Survey, 2006-2016: Secure Access|
|Alternative title:||Expenditure and Food Survey; LCF; EFS|
|Series:||Living Costs and Food Survey (Expenditure and Food Survey) [Living Costs and Food Survey, 2006-: Secure Access]|
|Depositor:||Office for National Statistics|
Office for National Statistics
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Office for National Statistics
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
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Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.Background
A household food consumption and expenditure survey has been conducted each year in Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland) since 1940. At that time the National Food Survey (NFS) covered a sample drawn solely from urban working-class households, but this was extended to a fully demographically representative sample in 1950. From 1957 onwards the Family Expenditure Survey (FES) provided information on all household expenditure patterns including food expenditure, with the NFS providing more detailed information on food consumption and expenditure. The NFS was extended to cover Northern Ireland from 1996 onwards. In April 2001 these surveys were combined to form the Expenditure and Food Survey (EFS), which completely replaced both series. From January 2008, the EFS became known as the Living Costs and Food (LCF) module of the Integrated Household Survey (IHS). As a consequence of this change, the EFS questionnaire was altered to accommodate the insertion of a core set of questions, common to all of the separate modules which together comprise the IHS. Some of these core questions are simply questions which were previously asked in the same or a similar format on all of the IHS component surveys (including the EFS). For further information on the LCF questionnaire, see Volume A of the LCF 2008 User Guide, held with SN 6385. Further information about the LCF/EFS, including links to published reports based on the survey, may be found on the ONS Living Costs and Food Survey webpage. Further information on the NFS and Living Costs and Food Module of the IHS can be found by searching for 'Family Food' on the GOV.UK website.
Purpose of the LCF (formerly EFS)
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) has overall project management and financial responsibility for the LCF/EFS, while the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) sponsors the food data. As with the FES and NFS, the LCF continues to be primarily used to provide information for the Retail Prices Index, National Accounts estimates of household expenditure, analysis of the effect of taxes and benefits, and trends in nutrition. The results are multi-purpose, however, providing an invaluable supply of economic and social data. The merger of the two surveys also brings benefits for users, as a single survey on food expenditure removes the difficulties of reconciling data from two sources.
Design and methodology
The design of the LCF/EFS is based on the FES, although the use of new processing software by the data creators has resulted in a dataset which differs from the previous FES structure. The most significant change in terms of reporting expenditure, however, is the introduction of the European Standard Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose (COICOP), in place of the codes used in the FES and NFS, which were unique to the two surveys. An additional level of hierarchy has been developed for the EFS to improve the mapping to the previous FES and NFS codes. The LCF/EFS was conducted on a financial year basis from 2001, but was moved from a financial to a calendar year basis from January 2006 in anticipation of the introduction of the IHS. Therefore, whilst SNs 4697, 5003, 5210, 5375 and 5688 cover 2001-2002, 2002-2003, 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 respectively, SN 5986 covers January-December 2006, and subsequent studies cover January-December of the survey year. The documentation for SN 5986 provides further details of the change in methodology.
Northern Ireland sample
Users of the LCF/EFS should note that, due to funding constraints, from January 2010 the Northern Ireland (NI) sample used for the LCF was reduced to a sample proportionate to the NI population relative to the UK.
Variables available in the Secure Access version
The Secure Access version includes geographical variables with detail below government office region up to the postcode level, and urban/rural area indicators, as well as other sensitive variables. Also included are the raw diary information files and the family expenditure codes files.
In response to user demand, the Living Costs and Food Survey moved from a calendar to financial year survey from 2015. Therefore, the main survey data files cover April 2015 - March 2016. To cover the transition, data are available for Quarter 1, 2015 (January - March), but are in separate files, all clearly marked as Quarter 1. See documentation for further details of the change.
Latest edition information
For the ninth edition (November 2017), the data files covering 2015 Quarter 1 and 2015 Quarter 2 to 2016 Quarter 1 have been added to the study, accompanied by updated documentation.
The first part of the LCF/EFS questionnaire collects information about households; the majority of the questions are asked at a household-level, with the household reference person typically responding on behalf of the household as a whole. The household questionnaire includes questions on a range of subjects including family relationships, ethnicity, employment details and the ownership of household durables. It is also the source of all expenditure information not recorded in the LCF/EFS diary; principally that which concerns regular payments typically made by all households and large, infrequently purchased items such as vehicles, package holidays and home improvements.
The income questionnaire follows on immediately from the household questionnaire and collects the key person-level variables used on the survey. The principal components of the LCF income questionnaire are the sections covering income from employment, benefits and assets. These together form an overview of the total income received by each household, as well as each household member individually.
In addition to the two questionnaires, each individual aged 16 years and over in the household is asked to keep diary records of daily expenditure for two weeks. The raw diary data are held in separate files available only in the Secure Access version of the study.
|Time period:||01 January 2006 - 31 March 2016|
Government Office Regions
Local Authority Districts
A household comprises one person or a group of people who have the accommodation as their only or main residence and (for a group) share the living accommodation (i.e. a living or sitting room), or share meals together or have common housekeeping.
|Kind of data:||
Individual (micro) level
Households in the United Kingdom surveyed during 2006-2016.
Repeated cross-sectional study
From January 2006, the EFS (now LCF) moved from a financial to calendar year basis in anticipation of the IHS. However, in response to user demand, the Living Costs and Food Survey moved back from a calendar to financial year survey from 2015.
Multi-stage stratified random sample
Due to funding constraints, from January 2010 the Northern Ireland (NI) sample used for the LCF was reduced to a sample proportionate to the NI population relative to the UK.
|Number of units:||Between approximately 5,000 cases to 6,500 cases throughout the survey years.|
|Method of data collection:||
Face-to-face interview; Diaries
|Weighting:||Weighting used. See documentation for details.|
|ADMINISTRATIVE AREAS||AGE||AIR TRAVEL|
|ALCOHOLIC DRINKS||APARTMENTS||APPOINTMENT TO JOB|
|ASSOCIATIONS||BANK ACCOUNTS||BANK CHARGES|
|BUILDING MAINTENANCE||BUILDING MATERIALS||BUILDING OPERATIONS|
|BUILDING SERVICES||BUILDING SOCIETIES||BUILDING SOCIETY ACCOUNTS|
|BUSINESS RECORDS||CARE OF DEPENDANTS||CARERS' BENEFITS|
|CARPETS||CENTRAL HEATING||CEREAL PRODUCTS|
|CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS||CHIEF INCOME EARNERS||CHILD BENEFITS|
|CLEANING AGENTS||CLEANING SERVICES||CLOTHING|
|COAL||COHABITATION||COLOUR TELEVISION RECEIVERS|
|COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS||COMPACT DISC PLAYERS||COMPANY CARS|
|COMPUTER SOFTWARE||COMPUTERS||CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT|
|COUNCIL TAX||CREDIT CARD USE||CREDIT|
|CULTURAL GOODS||DAIRY PRODUCTS||DEATH ALLOWANCES|
|DIESEL OIL||DISABLED PERSONS||DOMESTIC APPLIANCES|
|DRIVING LICENCES||DRIVING||DRUG USE|
|ECONOMIC ACTIVITY||ECONOMIC VALUE||EDIBLE FATS|
|EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND||EDUCATIONAL COURSES||EDUCATIONAL FEES|
|EDUCATIONAL GRANTS||EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS||ELDERLY|
|ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY||ELECTRIC POWER||ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT|
|ELECTRONIC COMMERCE||ELECTRONIC GAMES||ELEVATORS|
|EMPLOYEES||EMPLOYMENT HISTORY||EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMMES|
|ENTERTAINMENT||EQUIPMENT RENTAL||ETHNIC GROUPS|
|FAMILY BENEFITS||FEES||FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS|
|FINANCIAL RESOURCES||FINANCIAL SUPPORT||FINES|
|FISH (AS FOOD)||FOOD||FOSTER CHILDREN|
|FUEL OILS||FUELS||FULL-TIME EMPLOYMENT|
|HEADS OF HOUSEHOLD||HEALTH SERVICES||HEATING SYSTEMS|
|HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS||HIGHER EDUCATION||HIRE PURCHASE|
|HOME BUYING||HOME OWNERSHIP||HOME SELLING|
|HOME SHARING||HORTICULTURE||HOURS OF WORK|
|HOUSEHOLD BUDGETS||HOUSEHOLD PETS||HOUSEHOLDS|
|HOUSES||HOUSING BENEFITS||HOUSING FINANCE|
|HOUSING IMPROVEMENT||HOUSING TENURE||HOUSING|
|INCOME TAX||INCOME||INCOME-RELATED BENEFITS|
|INDUSTRIES||INSURANCE CLAIMS||INSURANCE PREMIUMS|
|INSURANCE||INTEREST (FINANCE)||INTERNET USE|
|JOB DESCRIPTION||JOB HUNTING||JOB SEEKER'S ALLOWANCE|
|LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES||LESSONS||LICENCES|
|LIFE INSURANCE||LOANS||LOCAL TAX BENEFITS|
|LODGERS||LOTTERIES||MAIL ORDER SERVICES|
|MARRIED WOMEN WORKERS||MARRIED WOMEN||MATERNITY BENEFITS|
|MATERNITY LEAVE||MATERNITY PAY||MEALS|
|MEDICAL INSURANCE||MEDICAL PRESCRIPTIONS||METHODS OF PAYMENT|
|MILK||MOBILE HOMES||MOBILE PHONES|
|MORTGAGE PROTECTION INSURANCE||MORTGAGES||MOTOR VEHICLE HIRE|
|MOTOR VEHICLE VALUE||MOTOR VEHICLES||NATIONAL IDENTITY|
|OCCUPATIONS||ONE-PARENT FAMILIES||ONLINE BANKING|
|ONLINE SERVICES||ONLINE SHOPPING||OUTDOOR PURSUITS|
|OVERSEAS TRANSACTIONS||OVERTIME||PACKAGE HOLIDAYS|
|PACKETED FOODS||PARTNERSHIPS (BUSINESS)||PART-TIME COURSES|
|PART-TIME EMPLOYMENT||PATERNITY LEAVE||PAYMENTS|
|PERSONAL FASHION GOODS||PET FOODS||PETROL|
|PETROLEUM PRODUCTS||PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT||POCKET MONEY|
|POSTAL SERVICES||PRESERVED FOODS||PRICES|
|PRIVATE EDUCATION||PRIVATE PENSIONS||PRIVATE PERSONAL PENSIONS|
|PRIVATE SCHOOLS||PRIVATE SECTOR||PROFIT SHARING|
|RECREATIONAL EDUCATION||REDUNDANCY PAY||REDUNDANCY|
|REFUNDS||REMOVAL SERVICES||RENTED ACCOMMODATION|
|RENTS||RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY||RETAIL SERVICES|
|RETIREMENT||ROAD TAX||ROAD VEHICLE MAINTENANCE|
|SALT||SAME-SEX RELATIONSHIPS||SATELLITE RECEIVERS|
|SCHOOL MILK PROVISION||SCHOOLCHILDREN||SCHOOLS|
|SECOND HOMES||SELF-EMPLOYED||SERVICE INDUSTRIES|
|SEWAGE DISPOSAL AND HANDLING||SHARES||SICK LEAVE|
|SICK PAY||SICK PERSONS||SICKNESS AND DISABILITY BENEFITS|
|SMALL BUSINESSES||SOAP||SOCIAL CLASS|
|SOCIAL HOUSING||SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS||SOCIAL SECURITY CONTRIBUTIONS|
|SOCIAL SECURITY||SOCIAL SERVICES||SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS|
|SPORTS EQUIPMENT||SPOUSES||STATE RETIREMENT PENSIONS|
|STRIKE PAY||STRIKES||STUDENT LOANS|
|SUBSIDIARY EMPLOYMENT||SUPERVISORS||TAKE-AWAY MEALS|
|TELEVISION CHANNELS||TELEVISION LICENCES||TELEVISION RECEIVERS|
|TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT||TENANTS' HOME PURCHASING||TIED HOUSING|
|TINNED FOODS||TOBACCO||TOP MANAGEMENT|
|TOURIST ACCOMMODATION||TRADE UNIONS||TRANSPORT|
|UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS||UNFURNISHED ACCOMMODATION||UNITED KINGDOM|
|UNWAGED WORKERS||VEGETABLE OILS||VEGETABLES|
|VEHICLES||VIDEO RECORDERS||VOUCHER SCHEMES|
|WAGES||WATER SERVICES (BUILDINGS)||WEIGHT MEASUREMENT|
|WORKING WOMEN||WRITING MATERIALS|
|Date of release:|
|First edition:||03 October 2012|
|Latest edition:||02 November 2017 (9th Edition)|
|Copyright:||Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland|
Registration is required and standard conditions of use apply. The depositor may be informed about usage. Controlled data requirements and conditions also apply. Further information is available from Access Secure Lab.
In addition, the Service is required to request explicit permission from the data owner prior to providing the researcher with access to the data
To apply for access, users should use the Download/Order link on this page and will be directed to the relevant forms as part of the ordering process.
|Availability:||UK Data Service|
|Contact:||Get in touch|
|Title||File Name||Size (KB)|
|EFS 2006 Specification of Family Spending||7047specification_family_spending_efs_2005-06.xlsx||1296|
|EFS 2007 Specification of Family Spending||7047spec2007_userguide.xls||2366|
|EFS 2007 anonymised variable list||7047uk_anonymised_variable_list_2007.xls||726|
|EFS 2007 Volume D - Expenditure Codes||7047volume_d_expenditure_codes_2007.xls||1149|
|EFS 2007 Volume E - Raw Variables||7047volume_e_raw_variables_2007.xls||494|
|EFS 2007 Volume F - Derived Variables||7047volume_f_derived_variables_2007.xls||639|
|EFS 2007 Volume G - Changes Database||7047volume_g_changes_database_2007.xls||120|
|LCF 2008 Volume D - Expenditure Codes||7047volume_d_expenditure_codes_2008.xls||1143|
|LCF 2008 Volume E - Raw Variables||7047volume_e_raw_variables_2008.xls||558|
|LCF 2008 Volume F - Derived Variables||7047volume_f_derived_variables_2008.xls||725|
|LCF 2008 Volume G - Changes Database||7047volume_g_lcf_changes_database_2008.xls||267|
|LCF 2009 Specification of Family Spending||7047spec2009_v2.xlsx||1295|
|LCF 2009 Volume D - Expenditure Codes||7047volume_d_expenditure_codes_2009.xls||2414|
|LCF 2010 Specification of Family Spending||7047spec2010.xls||2477|
|LCF 2010 Volume D - Expenditure Codes||7047volume_d_expenditure_codes_2010.xls||2414|
|LCF 2011 Volume D - Expenditure Codes||7047volume_d_expenditure_codes_2011.xls||2414|
|LCF 2011 Volume E - Raw Variables||7047volume_e_raw_variables_2011.xls||6577|
|LCF 2011 Volume F - Derived Variables||7047volume_f_derived_variables_2011.xls||5569|
|LCF 2011 Volume H - Changes Database||7047volume_h_changes_database_2011.xls||997|
|LCF 2012 Volume D - Expenditure Codes||7047volume_d_expenditure_codes_2012.xlsx||665|
|LCF 2012 Volume E - Raw Variables||7047volume_e_raw_variables_2012.xls||6602|
|LCF 2012 Volume F - Derived Variables||7047volume_f_derived_variables_2012.xls||5619|
|LCF 2012 Volume H - Changes Database||7047volume_h_changes_database_2012.xls||6232|
|LCF 2013 Specification of Family Spending||7047specification_2013.xls||2626|
|LCF 2013 Volume D - Expenditure Codes||7047volume_d_expenditure_codes_2013.xlsx||671|
|LCF 2013 Volume E - Raw Variables||7047volume_e_raw_variables_2013.xls||6677|
|LCF 2013 Volume F - Derived Variables||7047volume_f_derived_variables_2013.xls||5597|
|LCF 2013 Volume H - Changes Database||7047volume_h_changes_database_2013.xls||6868|
|LCF 2014 Specification of Family Spending||7047spec2014.xls||2624|
|LCF 2014 Volume D - Expenditure Codes||7047volume_d_expenditure_codes_2014.xls||4243|
|LCF 2014 Volume E - Raw Variables||7047volume_e_raw_variables_2014.xls||6660|
|LCF 2014 Volume F - Derived Variables||7047volume_f_derived_variables_2014.xls||5587|
|LCF 2014 Volume H - Changes Database||7047volume_h_changes_database_2014.xls||6187|
|LCF 2015-16 Specification of Family Spending||7047_spec_2015-16.xls||2624|
|LCF 2015-16 Volume D - Expenditure Codes||7047_volume_d_expenditure_codes_2015-16.xls||3350|
|LCF 2015-16 Volume E - Raw Variables||7047_volume_e_raw_variables_2015-16.xls||6651|
|LCF 2015-16 Volume F - Derived Variables||7047_volume_f_derived_variables_2015-16.xls||5577|
|LCF 2015-16 Volume H - Changes Database||7047_volume_h_changes_database_2015-16.xls||6189|
|UK Data Archive Data Dictionary, 2006-2010||7047allfiles_ukda_data_dictionary_2006_2010.pdf||10037|
|UK Data Archive Data Dictionary, 2011-2013||7047allfiles_ukda_data_dictionary_2011_2013.pdf||9476|
|UK Data Archive Data Dictionary, 2014-2016||7047allfiles_ukda_data_dictionary_2014_2016.pdf||15129|
|LCF 2005-06 past queries regarding food database||7047queries_on_family_food_access_database_2005-06_2.pdf||189|
|EFS 2005-06 Questionnaires||7047questionnaires_2005-06.pdf||1113|
|EFS 2005-06 User Guide Volume 1||7047userguidevol1_2005-06.pdf||622|
|EFS 2005-06 User Guide Volume 2||7047userguidevol2_2005-06.pdf||707|
|EFS 2005-06 User Guide Volume 3||7047userguidevol3_2005-06.pdf||1101|
|EFS 2005-06 User Guide Volume 4||7047userguidevol4_2005-06.pdf||476|
|EFS 2005-06 User Guide Volume 5||7047userguidevol5_2005-06.pdf||419|
|EFS 2007 OAC variables||7047oac_variables.pdf||270|
|EFS 2007 prompt cards||7047prompt_cards_2007.pdf||478|
|EFS 2007 Volume A - Introduction||7047volume_a_introduction_2007.pdf||605|
|EFS 2007 Volume B - Household Questionnaire||7047volume_b_household_questionnaire_2007.pdf||723|
|EFS 2007 Volume C - Income Questionnaire||7047volume_c_income_questionnaire_2007.pdf||502|
|LCF 2008 Showcards||7047lcf_showcards_2008.pdf||349|
|LCF 2008 Volume A - Introduction||7047volume_a_introduction_2008.pdf||403|
|LCF 2008 Volume B - Household Questionnaire||7047volume_b_household_questionnaire_2008.pdf||1379|
|LCF 2008 Volume C - Income Questionnaire||7047volume_c_income_questionnaire_2008.pdf||929|
|LCF 2009 Volume A - Introduction||7047volume_a_introduction_2009.pdf||699|
|LCF 2009 Volume B - Household Questionnaire||7047volume_b_household_questionnaire_2009.pdf||1182|
|LCF 2009 Volume C - Income Questionnaire||7047volume_c_income_questionnaire_2009.pdf||584|
|LCF 2009 Volume E - Raw Variables||7047volume_e_raw_variables_2009.pdf||538|
|LCF 2009 Volume F - Derived Variables||7047volume_f_derived_variables_2009.pdf||621|
|LCF 2009 Volume G - Derived Variables Flowcharts||7047volume_g_derived_variables_flowcharts_2009.pdf||106743|
|LCF 2009 Volume H - Changes Database||7047volume_h_changes_database_2009.pdf||358|
|LCF 2010 Volume A - Introduction||7047volume_a_introduction_2010.pdf||472|
|LCF 2010 Volume B - Household Questionnaire||7047volume_b_household_questionnaire_2010.pdf||1149|
|LCF 2010 Volume C - Income Questionnaire||7047volume_c_income_questionnaire_2010.pdf||471|
|LCF 2010 Volume E - Raw Variables||7047volume_e_raw_variables_2010.pdf||781|
|LCF 2010 Volume F - Derived Variables||7047volume_f_derived_variables_2010.pdf||585|
|LCF 2010 Volume G - Derived Variables Flowcharts||7047volume_g_derived_variables_flowcharts_2010.pdf||6076|
|LCF 2010 Volume H - Changes Database||7047volume_h_changes_database_2010.pdf||406|
|LCF 2011 Volume A - Introduction||7047volume_a_introduction_2011.pdf||364|
|LCF 2011 Volume B - Household Questionnaire||7047volume_b_household_questionnaire_2011.pdf||822|
|LCF 2011 Volume C - Income Questionnaire||7047volume_c_income_questionnaire_2011.pdf||386|
|LCF 2011 Volume G - Derived Variables Flowcharts||7047volume_g_derived_variables_flowcharts_2011.pdf||3432|
|LCF 2012 Volume A - Introduction||7047volume_a_introduction_2012.pdf||648|
|LCF 2012 Volume B: Household Questionnaire||7047volume_b_household_questionnaire_2012.pdf||1125|
|LCF 2012 Volume C - Income Questionnaire||7047volume_c_income_questionnaire_2012.pdf||668|
|LCF 2012 Volume G - Derived Variables Flowcharts||7047volume_g_derived_variables_flowcharts_2012.pdf||5204|
|LCF 2013 Volume A - Introduction||7047volume_a_introduction_2013.pdf||367|
|LCF 2013 Volume B - Household Questionnaire||7047volume_b_household_questionnaire_2013.pdf||1581|
|LCF 2013 Volume C - Income Questionnaire||7047volume_c_income_questionnaire_2013.pdf||1179|
|LCF 2013 Volume C - Benefits Update||7047volume_c_july_to_december_benefits_update_2013.pdf||959|
|LCF 2013 Volume G - Derived Variables Flowcharts||7047volume_g_derived_variables_flowcharts_2013.pdf||4239|
|LCF 2014 Summary, VML||7047data_summary_vml_2014.pdf||293|
|LCF 2014 Volume A - Introduction||7047volume_a_introduction_2014.pdf||222|
|LCF 2014 Volume B - Household Questionnaire||7047volume_b_household_questionnaire_2014.pdf||673|
|LCF 2014 Volume C - Income Questionnaire||7047volume_c_income_questionnaire_2014.pdf||1747|
|LCF 2014 Volume G - Derived Variables Flowcharts||7047volume_g_derived_variables_flowcharts_2014.pdf||3705|
|LCF 2015-16 Volume A - Introduction||7047_volume_a_introduction_2015-16.pdf||1077|
|LCF 2015-16 Volume B - Household Questionnaire||7047_volume_b_household_questionnaire_2015-16.pdf||3962|
|LCF 2015-16 Volume C - Income Questionnaire||7047_volume_c_income_questionnaire_2015-16.pdf||2429|
|LCF 2015-16 Volume G - Derived Variables Flowcharts||7047_volume_g_derived_variables_flowcharts_2015-16.pdf||6562|
|Study information and citation||UKDA_Study_7047_Information.htm||6|
By principal investigator(s):
The ONS and DEFRA reports for the LCF/EFS are available from their respective web sites, as listed below:
DEFRA (2003) Family food in 2001/2, London: DEFRA.
ONS (2003) Family spending: a report on the 2001-2002 Expenditure and Food Survey, London: ONS.
DEFRA (2004) Family food in 2002/3, London: DEFRA.
ONS (2004) Family spending: a report on the 2002-2003 Expenditure and Food Survey, London: ONS.
DEFRA (2005) Family food in 2003/4, London: DEFRA.
ONS (2005) Family spending: a report on the 2003-2004 Expenditure and Food Survey, London: ONS.
ONS (2006) Family spending: a report on the 2004-2005 Expenditure and Food Survey, London: ONS.
ONS (2007) Family spending: 2007 edition, London: ONS.
Resulting from secondary analysis:
Gregg, P., Waldfogel, J. and Washbrook, E. (2005) Expenditure patterns post-welfare reform in the UK: are low-income families starting to catch up?, CASEpaper 99, STICERD, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics.
Chai, A. and A. Moneta (2009) 'Comparing shapes of Engel curves', Economics Bulletin, 29(2), pp.1164-1170; also published as Chai, A. and Moneta, A. (2008), Comparing shapes of Engel curves, Jena Economic Research Papers, no.093.
Chai, A. and A. Moneta (2008) Satiation, escaping satiation, and structural change: some evidence from the evolution of Engel curves, Papers on Economics and Evolution, no. 0818.
Gough, I., Abdallah, S., Johnson, V., Ryan-Collins, J. and Smith, C. (July 2011) The distribution of total greenhouse gas emissions by households in the UK and some implications for social policy, CASEpaper 152, STICERD, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics. Retrieved October 19th, 2011 from http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/case/cp/CASEpaper152.pdf
Ludbrook, A., Petrie, D., McKenzie, L. and Farrar, S. (2012) 'Tackling alcohol misuse purchasing patterns affected by minimum pricing for alcohol', Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 10(1), pp.51-63.
Adam, S. and Browne, J. (2013) Do the UK Government's welfare reforms make work pay?, IFS Working Paper W13/26, Institute for Fiscal Studies, September.
Adam, S., Johnson, P. and Roantree, B. (2013) Taxing an Independent Scotland, IFS Briefing Note B141, Institute for Fiscal Studies, October.
Amior, M., Crawford, R. and G. Tetlow (2013) The UK's public finances in the long run: the IFS model, IFS Working Paper W13/29, Institute for Fiscal Studies, November.
Meng, Y., Brennan, A., Purshouse, R., Hill-McManus, D., Angus, C., et al. (2014) 'Estimation of own and cross price elasticities of alcohol demand in the UK - a pseudo-panel approach using the Living Costs and Food Survey 2001 to 2009', Journal of Health Economics, 34, pp.96-103.
Banks, J., Kelly, E. and Smith, J.P. (2014) 'Spousal health effects: the role of selection', in D. Wise and R. Woodbury (eds.) Discoveries in the economics of aging, Chicago University Press, pp.255-279.
Adams, A., Hood, A. and Levell, P. (2014) 'The squeeze on incomes', The IFS Green Budget 2014 (Chapter 6), London IFS, 2014. retrieved May 12th, 2014 from http://www.ifs.org.uk/budgets/gb2014/gb2014.pdf. Also presented at the Green Budget Launch on 6 February 2014 and the ONS Labour Market Statistics User Group Conference at the Royal Society, London, 24 March 2014.
Healy, A.E. (2014) 'Convergence or difference: Western European household food expenditure', British Food Journal [online], 116(5), pp.792-804. doi: 10.1108/BFJ-11-2012-0274.
Healy, A.E. (2014) 'Eating and ageing: a comparison over time of Italy, Ireland, the United Kingdom and France', International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 55, pp.379-403. doi: 10.1177/0020715214561132.