UK Data Service data catalogue record for:
|Title:||Living Costs and Food Survey, 2015-2016|
|Series:||Living Costs and Food Survey (Expenditure and Food Survey) [Living Costs and Food Survey, 2001-]|
|Depositor:||Office for National Statistics|
|Depositor:||Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs|
Office for National Statistics
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Office for National Statistics
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
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Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.Background:
A household food consumption and expenditure survey has been conducted each year in Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland) since 1940. At that time the National Food Survey (NFS) covered a sample drawn solely from urban working-class households, but this was extended to a fully demographically representative sample in 1950. From 1957 onwards the Family Expenditure Survey (FES) provided information on all household expenditure patterns including food expenditure, with the NFS providing more detailed information on food consumption and expenditure. The NFS was extended to cover Northern Ireland from 1996 onwards. In April 2001 these surveys were combined to form the Expenditure and Food Survey (EFS), which completely replaced both series. From January 2008, the EFS became known as the Living Costs and Food (LCF) module of the Integrated Household Survey (IHS). As a consequence of this change, the questionnaire was altered to accommodate the insertion of a core set of questions, common to all of the separate modules which together comprised the IHS. Some of these core questions are simply questions which were previously asked in the same or a similar format on all of the IHS component surveys. For further information on the LCF questionnaire, see Volume A of the LCF 2008 User Guide, held with SN 6385. Further information about the LCF, including links to published reports based on the survey, may be found on the ONS Living Costs and Food Survey webpage. Further information on the NFS and Living Costs and Food Module of the IHS can be found by searching for 'Family Food' on the GOV.UK website.
The LCF (then EFS) was the result of more than two years' development work to bring together the FES and NFS; both survey series were well-established and important sources of information for government and the wider community, and had charted changes and patterns in spending and food consumption since the 1950s. Whilst the NFS and FES series are now finished, users should note that previous data from both series are still available from the UK Data Archive, under GNs 33071 (NFS) and 33057 (FES).
Purpose of the LCF
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) has overall project management and financial responsibility for the LCF, while the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) sponsors the food data element. As with the FES and NFS, the LCF continues to be primarily used to provide information for the Retail Prices Index, National Accounts estimates of household expenditure, analysis of the effect of taxes and benefits, and trends in nutrition. The results are multi-purpose, however, providing an invaluable supply of economic and social data. The merger of the two surveys also brings benefits for users, as a single survey on food expenditure removes the difficulties of reconciling data from two sources. Design and methodology The design of the LCF is based on the old FES, although the use of new processing software by the data creators has resulted in a dataset which differs from the previous structure. The most significant change in terms of reporting expenditure, however, is the introduction of the European Standard Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose (COICOP), in place of the codes previously used. An additional level of hierarchy has been developed to improve the mapping to the previous codes. The LCF was conducted on a financial year basis from 2001, then moved to a calendar year basis from January 2006 (to complement the IHS) until 2015-16, when the financial year survey was reinstated at the request of users. Therefore, whilst SN 5688 covers April 2005 - March 2006, SN 5986 covers January-December 2006. Subsequent years cover January-December until 2014. SN 8210 returns to the financial year survey and currently covers April 2015 - March 2016.
Northern Ireland sample
Users should note that, due to funding constraints, from January 2010 the Northern Ireland (NI) sample used for the LCF was reduced to a sample proportionate to the NI population relative to the UK.
Further information about the LCF food databases can be found on the GOV.UK Family Food Statistics web pages.
Secure Access version
A Secure Access version of the LCF from 2006 onwards is available from the UK Data Archive under SN 7047, subject to stringent access conditions. The Secure Access version includes variables that are not included in the standard End User Licence (EUL) version, including geographical variables with detail below Government Office Region, to postcode level; urban/rural area indicators; other sensitive variables; raw diary information files (derived variables are available in the EUL) and the family expenditure codes files. Users are strongly advised to check whether the EUL version is sufficient for their needs before considering an application for the Secure Access version.
|In response to user demand, the Living Costs and Food Survey moved from a calendar to financial year survey from 2015. Therefore, the main survey data files cover April 2015 - March 2016. To cover the transition, data are available for Quarter 1, 2015 (January - March), but are in separate files, all clearly marked as Quarter 1. See documentation for further details of the change.
Latest edition information
For the second edition (October 2017), updated 2015-16 Raw Household Data and 2015 Quarter 1 Derived Household Members Data have been deposited.
The first part of the LCF questionnaire collects information about households; the majority of the questions are asked at a household-level, with the household reference person typically responding on behalf of the household as a whole. The household questionnaire includes questions on a range of subjects including family relationships, ethnicity, employment details and the ownership of household durables. It is also the source of all expenditure information not recorded in the LCF diary; principally that which concerns regular payments typically made by all households and large, infrequently purchased items such as vehicles, package holidays and home improvements.
The income questionnaire follows on immediately from the household questionnaire and collects the key person-level variables used on the survey. The principal components of the LCF income questionnaire are the sections covering income from employment, benefits and assets. These together form an overview of the total income received by each household, as well as each household member individually.
In addition to the two questionnaires, each individual aged 16 years and over in the household is asked to keep diary records of daily expenditure for two weeks. The EUL version includes only derived variables from the expenditure diary.
|Dates of fieldwork:||April 2015 - March 2016 - Separate data files are available for Quarter 1 2015 (January-March) to cover the transition from calendar to financial year data collection.|
Government Office Regions
a household comprises one person or a group of people who have the accommodation as their only or main residence and (for a group) share the living accommodation (i.e. a living or sitting room), or share meals together or have common housekeeping.
|Kind of data:||
Individual (micro) level
Households in the United Kingdom surveyed during 2015-16.
Repeated cross-sectional study
Multi-stage stratified random sample
|Number of units:||4,912 households|
|Method of data collection:||
Face-to-face interview; Diaries
Only derived variables from the diary are included in the EUL version.
|Weighting:||Weighting used. See documentation for details.|
|ADMINISTRATIVE AREAS||AGE||AIR TRAVEL|
|ALCOHOLIC DRINKS||APARTMENTS||APPOINTMENT TO JOB|
|ASSOCIATIONS||BANK ACCOUNTS||BANK CHARGES|
|BUILDING MAINTENANCE||BUILDING MATERIALS||BUILDING OPERATIONS|
|BUILDING SERVICES||BUILDING SOCIETIES||BUILDING SOCIETY ACCOUNTS|
|BUSINESS RECORDS||CARE OF DEPENDANTS||CARERS' BENEFITS|
|CARPETS||CENTRAL HEATING||CEREAL PRODUCTS|
|CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS||CHIEF INCOME EARNERS||CHILD BENEFITS|
|CLEANING AGENTS||CLEANING SERVICES||CLOTHING|
|COAL||COHABITATION||COLOUR TELEVISION RECEIVERS|
|COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS||COMPACT DISC PLAYERS||COMPANY CARS|
|COMPUTER SOFTWARE||COMPUTERS||CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT|
|COUNCIL TAX||CREDIT CARD USE||CREDIT|
|CULTURAL GOODS||DAIRY PRODUCTS||DEATH ALLOWANCES|
|DIESEL OIL||DISABLED PERSONS||DOMESTIC APPLIANCES|
|DRIVING LICENCES||DRIVING||DRUG USE|
|ECONOMIC ACTIVITY||ECONOMIC VALUE||EDIBLE FATS|
|EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND||EDUCATIONAL COURSES||EDUCATIONAL FEES|
|EDUCATIONAL GRANTS||EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS||ELDERLY|
|ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY||ELECTRIC POWER||ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT|
|EMPLOYMENT HISTORY||EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMMES||EMPLOYMENT|
|EQUIPMENT RENTAL||ETHNIC GROUPS||EXAMINATIONS|
|FEES||FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS||FINANCIAL RESOURCES|
|FINANCIAL SUPPORT||FINES||FISH (AS FOOD)|
|FRINGE BENEFITS||FRUIT||FUEL OILS|
|FUELS||FULL-TIME EMPLOYMENT||FURNISHED ACCOMMODATION|
|GARDENING||GAS FUELS||GAS SUPPLY|
|GENDER||GIFTS||HEADS OF HOUSEHOLD|
|HEALTH SERVICES||HEATING SYSTEMS||HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS|
|HIGHER EDUCATION||HIRE PURCHASE||HOBBIES|
|HOLIDAYS ABROAD||HOLIDAYS||HOME BUYING|
|HOME OWNERSHIP||HOME SELLING||HOME SHARING|
|HORTICULTURE||HOURS OF WORK||HOUSEHOLD BUDGETS|
|HOUSING BENEFITS||HOUSING FINANCE||HOUSING IMPROVEMENT|
|HOUSING TENURE||HOUSING||INCOME TAX|
|INSURANCE CLAIMS||INSURANCE PREMIUMS||INSURANCE|
|INTEREST (FINANCE)||INTERNET USE||INTERNET|
|INVESTMENT RETURN||INVESTMENT||JOB DESCRIPTION|
|JOB HUNTING||JOB SEEKER'S ALLOWANCE||LANDLORDS|
|LEAVE||LEISURE GOODS||LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES|
|LOANS||LOCAL TAX BENEFITS||LODGERS|
|LOTTERIES||MAIL ORDER SERVICES||MANAGERS|
|MARITAL STATUS||MARKETING||MARRIED WOMEN WORKERS|
|MARRIED WOMEN||MATERNITY BENEFITS||MATERNITY LEAVE|
|MEAT||MEDICAL CARE||MEDICAL INSURANCE|
|MEDICAL PRESCRIPTIONS||METHODS OF PAYMENT||MILK|
|MOBILE HOMES||MOBILE PHONES||MORTGAGE PROTECTION INSURANCE|
|MORTGAGES||MOTOR VEHICLE HIRE||MOTOR VEHICLES|
|OCCUPATIONS||ONE-PARENT FAMILIES||ONLINE BANKING|
|ONLINE SERVICES||ONLINE SHOPPING||OUTDOOR PURSUITS|
|OVERSEAS TRANSACTIONS||OVERTIME||PACKAGE HOLIDAYS|
|PACKETED FOODS||PARTNERSHIPS (BUSINESS)||PART-TIME COURSES|
|PART-TIME EMPLOYMENT||PATERNITY LEAVE||PENSION CONTRIBUTIONS|
|PERIODICALS||PERSONAL FASHION GOODS||PET FOODS|
|PETROL||PETROLEUM PRODUCTS||PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT|
|POCKET MONEY||POSTAL SERVICES||PRESERVED FOODS|
|PRICES||PRIVATE EDUCATION||PRIVATE PENSIONS|
|PRIVATE PERSONAL PENSIONS||PRIVATE SCHOOLS||PRIVATE SECTOR|
|PROFIT SHARING||PROFITS||PUBLIC SECTOR|
|RECREATIONAL EDUCATION||REDUNDANCY PAY||REDUNDANCY|
|REMOVAL SERVICES||RENTED ACCOMMODATION||RENTS|
|RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY||RETAIL SERVICES||RETIREMENT|
|ROAD VEHICLE MAINTENANCE||ROOM SHARING||ROOMS|
|SCHOOL MEALS||SCHOOL MILK PROVISION||SCHOOLCHILDREN|
|SERVICE INDUSTRIES||SEWAGE DISPOSAL AND HANDLING||SHARES|
|SICK LEAVE||SICK PAY||SICK PERSONS|
|SICKNESS AND DISABILITY BENEFITS||SMALL BUSINESSES||SOAP|
|SOCIAL CLASS||SOCIAL HOUSING||SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS|
|SOCIAL SECURITY CONTRIBUTIONS||SOCIAL SECURITY||SOCIAL SERVICES|
|SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS||SOFT DRINKS||SPECTACLES|
|STATE RETIREMENT PENSIONS||STRIKE PAY||STRIKES|
|STUDENT LOANS||STUDENT TRANSPORTATION||STUDENTS|
|TAKE-AWAY MEALS||TAX RELIEF||TAXATION|
|TELEPHONES||TELEVISION CHANNELS||TELEVISION LICENCES|
|TELEVISION RECEIVERS||TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT||TENANTS' HOME PURCHASING|
|TIED HOUSING||TINNED FOODS||TOBACCO|
|TOP MANAGEMENT||TOURIST ACCOMMODATION||TRADE UNIONS|
|UNEMPLOYED||UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS||UNFURNISHED ACCOMMODATION|
|UNITED KINGDOM||UNWAGED WORKERS||VEGETABLE OILS|
|WATER SERVICES (BUILDINGS)||WINNINGS||WORKERS|
|WORKING MOTHERS||WORKING WOMEN||WRITING MATERIALS|
|Date of release:|
|First edition:||25 July 2017|
|Latest edition:||30 October 2017 (2nd Edition)|
|Copyright:||Crown Copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland|
|Access conditions:||The depositor has specified that registration is required and standard conditions of use apply. The depositor may be informed about usage. See terms and conditions of access for further information.|
|Availability:||UK Data Service|
|Contact:||Get in touch|
|Title||File Name||Size (KB)|
|User Guide: Volume D - Expenditure Codes 2015-16||8210_volume_d_expenditure_codes_2015-16.xls||3350|
|User Guide: Volume E - Raw Variable 2015-16||8210_volume_e_raw_variables_2015-16.xls||6651|
|User Guide: Volume F - Derived Variable 2015-16||8210_volume_f_derived_variables_2015-16.xls||5577|
|User Guide: Volume H - Changes Database 2015-16||8210_volume_h_changes_database_2015-16.xls||6189|
|User Guide: Volume A - Introduction 2015-16||8210_volume_a_introduction_2015-16.pdf||760|
|User Guide: Volume B - The Household Questionnaire 2015-16||8210_volume_b_household_questionnaire_2015-16.pdf||3644|
|User Guide: Volume C - The Income Questionnaire 2015-16||8210_volume_c_income_questionnaire_2015-16.pdf||2111|
|User Guide: Volume G - Derived Variable Flowcharts 2015-16||8210_volume_g_derived_variables_flowcharts_2015-16.pdf||6245|
|Study information and citation||UKDA_Study_8210_Information.htm||6|
By principal investigator(s):
The ONS and DEFRA reports for the LCF/EFS are available from their respective web sites, as listed below:
DEFRA (2003) Family food in 2001/2, London: DEFRA.
ONS (2003) Family spending: a report on the 2001-2002 Expenditure and Food Survey, London: ONS.
DEFRA (2004) Family food in 2002/3, London: DEFRA.
ONS (2004) Family spending: a report on the 2002-2003 Expenditure and Food Survey, London: ONS.
DEFRA (2005) Family food in 2003/4, London: DEFRA.
ONS (2005) Family spending: a report on the 2003-2004 Expenditure and Food Survey, London: ONS.
ONS (2006) Family spending: a report on the 2004-2005 Expenditure and Food Survey, London: ONS.
ONS (2007) Family spending: 2007 edition, London: ONS.
Resulting from secondary analysis:
Gregg, P., Waldfogel, J. and Washbrook, E. (2005) Expenditure patterns post-welfare reform in the UK: are low-income families starting to catch up?, CASEpaper 99, STICERD, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics.
Chai, A. and A. Moneta (2009) 'Comparing shapes of Engel curves', Economics Bulletin, 29(2), pp.1164-1170; also published as Chai, A. and Moneta, A. (2008), Comparing shapes of Engel curves, Jena Economic Research Papers, no.093.
Chai, A. and A. Moneta (2008) Satiation, escaping satiation, and structural change: some evidence from the evolution of Engel curves, Papers on Economics and Evolution, no. 0818.
Gough, I., Abdallah, S., Johnson, V., Ryan-Collins, J. and Smith, C. (July 2011) The distribution of total greenhouse gas emissions by households in the UK and some implications for social policy, CASEpaper 152, STICERD, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics. Retrieved October 19th, 2011 from http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/case/cp/CASEpaper152.pdf
Ludbrook, A., Petrie, D., McKenzie, L. and Farrar, S. (2012) 'Tackling alcohol misuse purchasing patterns affected by minimum pricing for alcohol', Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 10(1), pp.51-63.
Adam, S. (2013) 'Housing taxation and support for housing costs', in T. Callan (ed.) Budget perspectives 2014, Dublin: Economic and Society Research Institute. Retrieved August 19, 2013 from http://www.esri.ie/UserFiles/publications/RS31.pdf
Adam, S. and Browne, J. (2013) Do the UK Government’s welfare reforms make work pay?, IFS Working Paper W13/26, Institute for Fiscal Studies, September.
Adam, S., Johnson, P. and Roantree, B. (2013) Taxing an Independent Scotland, IFS Briefing Note B141, Institute for Fiscal Studies, October.
Amior, M., Crawford, R. and G. Tetlow (2013) The UK's public finances in the long run: the IFS model, IFS Working Paper W13/29, Institute for Fiscal Studies, November.
Meng, Y., Brennan, A., Purshouse, R., Hill-McManus, D., Angus, C., et al. (2014) 'Estimation of own and cross price elasticities of alcohol demand in the UK – a pseudo-panel approach using the Living Costs and Food Survey 2001 to 2009', Journal of Health Economics, 34, pp.96-103.
Banks, J., Kelly, E. and Smith, J.P. (2014) 'Spousal health effects: the role of selection', in D. Wise and R. Woodbury (eds.) Discoveries in the economics of aging, Chicago University Press, pp.255-279.
Adams, A., Hood, A. and Levell, P. (2014) 'The squeeze on incomes', The IFS Green Budget 2014 (Chapter 6), London IFS, 2014. retrieved May 12th, 2014 from http://www.ifs.org.uk/budgets/gb2014/gb2014.pdf. Also presented at the Green Budget Launch on 6 February 2014 and the ONS Labour Market Statistics User Group Conference at the Royal Society, London, 24 March 2014.
Healy, A.E. (2014) 'Convergence or difference: Western European household food expenditure', British Food Journal [online], 116(5), pp.792-804. doi: 10.1108/BFJ-11-2012-0274
Healy, A.E. (2014) 'Eating and ageing: a comparison over time of Italy, Ireland, the United Kingdom and France', International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 55, pp.379-403. doi: 10.1177/0020715214561132
Sellen, P., Huda, N., Gibson, S. and Oliver, L. (2018) Evaluation of Universal Infant Free School Meals, London: Education Policy Institute.