Catalogue

UK Data Service data catalogue record for:

Family Expenditure Survey, 1978

Title details

SN: 3055
Title: Family Expenditure Survey, 1978
Persistent identifier: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-3055-1
Series: Family Expenditure Survey [Family Expenditure Survey, 1961-2001]
Depositor: Department of Employment
Principal investigator(s): Department of Employment
Data collector(s): Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. Social Survey Division
Other acknowledgements: Prior to 1989 the Department of Employment had responsibility for the Family Expenditure Survey, with the data collection being carried out by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Social Survey Division. In 1989 the Central Statistical Office took over the responsibility for the survey, with the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Social Survey Division remaining responsible for the data collection. With the amalgamation of the Central Statistical Office and the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in April 1996, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) became the responsible body, both as principal investigator and data collector.

Citation

The citation for this study is:

Department of Employment. (1993). Family Expenditure Survey, 1978. [data collection]. UK Data Service. SN: 3055, http://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-3055-1

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Subject Categories

Consumer behaviour - Economics
Family life and marriage - Social stratification and groupings
Income, property and investment - Economics

Abstract

Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.

The Family Expenditure Survey (FES), which closed in 2001, was a continuous survey with an annual sample of around 10,000 households. They provided information on household and personal incomes, certain payments that recurred regularly (e.g. rent, gas and electricity bills, telephone accounts, insurances, season tickets and hire purchase payments), and maintained a detailed expenditure record for 14 consecutive days.

The original purpose of the FES was to provide information on spending patterns for the United Kingdom Retail Price Index (RPI). The survey was a cost-efficient way of collecting a variety of related data that the government departments required to correlate with income and expenditure at the household, tax unit and person levels. The annual FES began in 1957 (with an earlier large scale survey conducted in 1953/54) and was one of the first Department of Employment (DE) systems to be computerised in the early 1960s. The UKDA holds FES data from 1961-2001. The Northern Ireland Family Expenditure Survey (NIFES), which ran from 1967-1998, was identical to the UK FES and therefore used the same questionnaires and documentation. However, starting in 1988, a voluntary question on religious denomination was asked of those aged 16 and over in Northern Ireland. The UKDA holds NIFES data from 1968-1998, under GN 33240.

Significant FES developments over time include:
  • 1968: the survey was extended to include a sample drawn from the Northern Ireland FES and a new computer system was introduced which was used until 1985
  • 1986: DE and the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) converted the FES into a new database system using the SIR package
  • 1989: the Central Statistical Office (CSO) took over responsibility for the survey
  • 1994: in April, computerised personal interviewing was introduced using lap-top computers, the database system changed to INGRES and the survey changed from a calendar year to financial year basis
  • 1996: in April, OPCS and CSO were amalgamated into the Office for National Statistics (ONS), who assumed responsibility for the FES
  • 1998: from April onwards information from expenditure diaries kept by children aged 7 to 15 was included in data, and grossing factors were made available on the database
From 2001, the both the FES and the National Food Survey (NFS) (held at the UKDA under GN 33071) were completely replaced by a new survey, the Expenditure and Food Survey (EFS). Prior to the advent of the EFS, there had previously been considerable overlap between the FES and NFS, with both surveys asking respondents to keep a diary of expenditure. Thus, the 2000-2001 FES was the final one in the series. The design of the new EFS was based on the previous FES; further background to its development may be found in the 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 Family Spending reports. From 2008, the EFS became the Living Costs and Food Survey (LCF) (see under GN 33334).

Main Topics:
Household Schedule:
This schedule was taken at the main interview. Information for most of the questions was obtained from the head of household or housewife, but certain questions of a more individual character were put to every spender aged 15 or over (or 16 or over from 1973 onwards). Until the introduction of the community charge, information on rateable value and rate poundage was obtained from the appropriate local authority, as was information on whether the address was within a smokeless zone. Information was collected about the household, the sex and age of each member, and also details about the type and size of the household accommodation. The main part of the questionnaire related to expenditure both of a household and individual nature, but the questions were mainly confined to expenses of a recurring nature, e.g.:
  • Household: housing costs, payment to Gas and Electricity Boards or companies, telephone charges, licences and television rental
  • Individual: motor vehicles, season tickets for transport, life and accident insurances, payments through a bank, instalments, refund of expenses by employer, expenditure claimed by self-employed persons as business expenses for tax purposes, welfare foods, education grants and fees
Income Schedule:
Data were collected for each household spender. The schedule was concerned with income, national insurance contributions and income tax. Income of a child not classed as a spender was obtained from one or other of his parents and entered on the parent's questionnaire. Information collected included: employment status and recent absences from work, earnings of an employee, self-employed earnings, National Insurance contributions, pensions and other regular allowances, occasional benefits - social security benefits and other types, investment income, miscellaneous earnings of a 'once-only' character, tax paid directly to Inland Revenue or refunded, income of a child.

Diary Records:
The diary covered fourteen days. Each household member aged 15 or over (or 16 or over from 1973 onwards) was asked to record all expenditure made during the 14 days. Children aged between 7 and 15 were also asked to complete simplified diaries of their daily expenditure. Data from the children's diaries was included in the survey results for the first time in 1998-99.

Coverage, universe, methodology

Time period: 1978
Country: United Kingdom
Spatial units: Standard Statistical Regions
Observation units: Families/households
Universe: National
Consumers
Households
Private households in the United Kingdom
Time dimensions: Repeated cross-sectional study
annual
Sampling procedures: Multi-stage stratified random sample
For specific details of the sampling procedures for individual years, please refer to the annual report.
Method of data collection: Face-to-face interview; Diaries
Weighting: No information recorded

Thesaurus search on keywords

View keywords... Hide keywords...
ABSENTEEISMADMINISTRATIVE AREASAGE
ALCOHOLIC DRINKSASSOCIATIONSBANK CHARGES
BEVERAGESBONUS PAYMENTSBOOKS
BUILDING MAINTENANCEBUILDING MATERIALSBUILDING SERVICES
BUILDING SOCIETIESBUILDING SOCIETY ACCOUNTSCENTRAL HEATING
CHIEF INCOME EARNERSCHILD BENEFITSCHILDREN
CLEANING AGENTSCLEANING SERVICESCLOTHING
COALCOLOUR TELEVISION RECEIVERSCOMPANY CARS
CONFECTIONERYCONSUMER GOODSCONSUMERS
CONSUMPTIONCOSTSCREDIT
CULTURAL GOODSDOGSDOMESTIC APPLIANCES
DRIVING LICENCESDRIVINGDRUG USE
ECONOMIC VALUEEDUCATIONAL FEESEDUCATIONAL GRANTS
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONSELDERLYELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY
ELECTRIC POWERELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTEMPLOYEES
EMPLOYMENTENERGY CONSUMPTIONENERGY
ENTERTAINMENTEQUIPMENT RENTALEXPENDITURE
FAMILIESFINANCIAL INSTITUTIONSFINANCIAL RESOURCES
FINANCIAL SUPPORTFOODFRINGE BENEFITS
FUEL OILSFUELSFULL-TIME EMPLOYMENT
FURNISHED ACCOMMODATIONFURNITUREGAMBLING
GARAGESGAS FUELSGAS SUPPLY
GENDERGIFTSGRANTS
HEADS OF HOUSEHOLDHEALTH SERVICESHEATING SYSTEMS
HIRE PURCHASEHOBBIESHOLIDAYS
HOME BUYINGHOME OWNERSHIPHOME SHARING
HORTICULTUREHOTELSHOURS OF WORK
HOUSEHOLD BUDGETSHOUSEHOLD PETSHOUSEHOLDS
HOUSEWIVESHOUSING FINANCEHOUSING IMPROVEMENT
HOUSING TENUREHOUSINGINCOME TAX
INCOMEINDUSTRIESINSURANCE PREMIUMS
INSURANCEINTEREST (FINANCE)INVESTMENT RETURN
INVESTMENTJOB HUNTINGLEAVE
LEISURE GOODSLEISURE TIME ACTIVITIESLICENCES
LIFE INSURANCELODGERSMAINTENANCE
MARITAL STATUSMARRIED WOMEN WORKERSMARRIED WOMEN
MEALSMEDICAL CAREMEDICAL INSURANCE
MEDICAL PRESCRIPTIONSMILKMOBILE HOMES
MORTGAGESMOTOR VEHICLESNEWSPAPERS
OCCUPATIONAL PENSIONSOCCUPATIONSONE-PARENT FAMILIES
OVERTIMEPART-TIME EMPLOYMENTPENSION CONTRIBUTIONS
PERIODICALSPERSONAL FASHION GOODSPET FOODS
PETROLPETROLEUM PRODUCTSPHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT
POCKET MONEYPOSTAL SERVICESPRIVATE PENSIONS
PRIVATE SECTORPUBLIC TRANSPORTPURCHASING
RATESREBATESREDUNDANCY PAY
RENTED ACCOMMODATIONRENTSRETIREMENT
ROAD VEHICLE MAINTENANCEROOMSSAVINGS
SCHOLARSHIPSSCHOOL MEALSSCHOOL MILK PROVISION
SCHOOLCHILDRENSCHOOLSSECOND HOMES
SELF-EMPLOYEDSERVICE INDUSTRIESSEWAGE DISPOSAL AND HANDLING
SICK LEAVESICK PAYSOAP
SOCIAL CLASSSOCIAL HOUSINGSOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS
SOCIAL SECURITY CONTRIBUTIONSSOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUSSOFT DRINKS
SPECTACLESSPORTSPORTS EQUIPMENT
SPOUSESSTATE RETIREMENT PENSIONSSTRIKE PAY
STUDENTSSUBSCRIPTIONSSUBSIDIARY EMPLOYMENT
TAKE-AWAY MEALSTAX RELIEFTAXATION
TELEPHONESTELEVISION RECEIVERSTIED HOUSING
TOBACCOTOYS AND GAMESTRADE UNIONS
TRAININGTRANSPORTTRAVEL
TUTORINGUNEMPLOYEDUNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS
UNFURNISHED ACCOMMODATIONUNITED KINGDOMWAGES
WATER SERVICES (BUILDINGS)WORKERSWORKING MOTHERS
WORKING WOMENWRITING MATERIALS

Administrative and access information

Date of release:
First edition: 12 August 1993
Copyright: Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland
Access conditions: The depositor has specified that registration is required and standard conditions of use apply. The depositor may be informed about usage. See terms and conditions of access for further information.
Please note: The Archive holds data from 1961 onwards. However the data for 1964-1967, although held for archival purposes, is unusable due to lack of coding information.
During 1992 and 1993 The Data Archive undertook an extensive programme of work to convert the pre-1986 data into SIR databases. This made the data more accessible to users who were already familiar with the new SIR files and enabled the Archive to output data more easily for non-SIR users. This work was extended to the 1961-1963 data so that the FES datasets for 1961-1963 and 1968 to the present can now be supplied in a number of formats.

Availability: UK Data Service
Contact: Get in touch

Documentation

Title File Name Size (KB)
User Guide Volume 1 a3055uab.pdf 4047
User Guide Volume 2 a3055ubb.pdf 2356
User Guide Volume 3 a3055ucb.pdf 5074
User Guide Volume 4 a3055udb.pdf 1015
Index file in3055.pdf 10
Study information and citation UKDA_Study_3055_Information.htm 26
READ File read3055.txt 1
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  Family Expenditure Survey, 1982 (SN 1921)
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  Family Expenditure Survey, 1989 (SN 2916)
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  Family Expenditure Survey, 1962 (SN 3043)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1963 (SN 3044)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1968 (SN 3045)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1969 (SN 3046)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1970 (SN 3047)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1971 (SN 3048)
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  Family Expenditure Survey, 1973 (SN 3050)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1974 (SN 3051)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1975 (SN 3052)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1976 (SN 3053)
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  Family Expenditure Survey, 1979 (SN 3056)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1980 (SN 3057)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1981 (SN 3058)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1992 (SN 3064)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1993 (SN 3242)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1993-1994 (SN 3280)
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  Family Expenditure Survey, 1995-1996 (SN 3635)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1996-1997 (SN 3783)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1997-1998 (SN 3963)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1998-1999 (SN 4071)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 1999-2000 (SN 4315)
  Family Expenditure Survey, 2000-2001 (SN 4490)
  Family Resources Survey, 1979 (SN 1930)
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  Simulation Program for Indirect Taxation, 1988; SPIT Version 6 (SN 3328)
  Living Costs and Food Survey, 2006-2014: Secure Access (SN 7047)

Publications

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By principal investigator(s):
Ministry of Labour (1961-1966) Family Expenditure Survey reports, London: HMSO, annual.

Department of Employment and Productivity (1967-1969) Family Expenditure Survey reports, London: HMSO, annual.

Department of Employment (1970-1989) Family Expenditure Survey reports, London: HMSO, annual.

Central Statistical Office (1989) Family Expenditure Survey : report for 1989 giving the results for the United Kingdom London: HMSO. ISBN 0-11-620448-6.

Central Statistical Office (1990-1995) Family Spending, Family Expenditure Survey reports, London: HMSO, annual.

Office for National Statistics (1996-) Family Spending, Family Expenditure Survey reports, London: The Stationery Office, annual.

Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (2000) The Northern Ireland Family Expenditure Survey: report for 1998/99, NISRA Monitor 1/00, Belfast: Central Survey Unit.

Resulting from secondary analysis:
Kemsley, W. F. F., (1969) Family Expenditure Survey Handbook London: HMSO (now out of print).

University of York, Department of Social Policy and Social Work (1983) The Social Policy Research Unit, (paper on establishment and history of the unit, detailing SPRU's research on the FES).

Hildenbrand, K. and Hildenbrand, W. (1986) `On the mean income effect : a data analysis of the U.K. Family Expenditure Survey', Projektbereich A, Reprint no. R-3, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitaet Bonn, Germany.

Grodal, B. and Hildenbrand, W. (1988) The weak axiom of revealed preference in a productive economy, Projektbereich A Discussion Paper No. A-106 (revised edn.), June (original edn. April 1987), Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitaet Bonn, Germany.

Hildenbrand, W., (1989)`Facts and ideas in microeconomic theory' European Economic Review 33, pp.251-276.

Grodal, B. and Hildenbrand, W. (1990) Statistical Engel curves, income distributions and the `Law of Demand', Projektbereich A Discussion Paper No. A-108, (revised edn.), July, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitaet Bonn, Germany.

Hardle, W., Hildenbrand, W. and Jerison, M. (1991) `Empirical evidence on the law of demand' Econometrica 59 (6), November, pp.1525-1549.

Esam, P. and Berthoud R. (1991) Independent benefits for men and women, London: Policy Studies Institute.
Askham, J. et al (1992) Life after 60 : a profile of Britain's older population, London: Age Concern Institute of Gerontology. ISBN 1-872342-60-4.

Pudney, S. and Sutherland, H. (1992) The statistical reliability of microsimulation : results for a UK tax-benefit model, University of Cambridge, Department of Applied Economics, Microsimulation Policy Modelling Unit Paper No. MPMU 9202, March.

Harmon, C. and Walker, I., (1993) `Schooling and earnings in the UK : evidence from the ROSLA experiment' The Economic and Social Review 25(1), pp.77-93.

Barmby, T., (1993) `Communication : household Labor supply, some notes on estimating a model with Pareto optimal outcomes' The Journal of Human Resources 29(3), pp.92-100.

Barmby, T.A., (1993) `Pareto optimal household labor supply : some remarks on estimation' IN Studies in Labor Economics, Avebury Press.
Hildenbrand, W. (1993) On the empirical evidence of microeconomic demand theory, Projektbereich A Discussion Paper No. A-413, 28 July.

Hildenbrand, W. and Kneip, A. (1993) `Family Expenditure data, heteroscedasticity and the law of demand' Richerche Economiche 47, pp.137-165.

Hildenbrand, W. (1993) `Facts and ideas in economic theory' European Economic Review 33, pp.251-176.

Hutton, S. and Hardman, G. (1993) The government's compensation package for VAT on fuel, CCT 1154 12.93 SH/GH, Social Policy Research Unit, University of York.

Berthoud, R., Lakey, J. and McKay, S.(eds.) (1993) The economic problems of disabled people, London: Policy Studies Institute.

Rolfe, S., Leather, P., Mackintosh, S. (1993) Available options : the constraints facing older people in meeting housing and care needs, Anchor Housing Trust. ISBN 0-906178-19-3.

Sutherland, H. and Redmond, G., (1993) The impact of the 1993 budget plans on the distribution of household incomes, University of Cambridge, Department of Applied Economics, Microsimulation Unit Research Note No. MU/RN/2, March.

Atkinson, A. B., et al., (1993) Comparing low incomes in France and the United Kingdom : evidence from household expenditure surveys, University of Cambridge, Department of Applied Economics, Microsimulation Unit Discussion Paper Series No. MU 9301, July.

Social Policy Research Unit (1993) Cash and Care : the newsletter of the Social Policy Research Unit, No. 14, Autumn.

Barr, N. and Falkingham, J. (1993) Paying for learning, Welfare State Programme Discussion Paper WSP/94, September.

Redmond, G. and Sutherland, H., (1993) How to raise two billion : some alternatives to VAT on domestic fuel, University of Cambridge, Department of Applied Economics, Microsimulation Unit Research Note No. MU/RN/3, September.

Hills, J. (with the LSE Welfare State Programme), (1993) The future of welfare : a guide to the debate, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, November.

Hildenbrand, W. (1993)`Reflexions sur le contenu empirique des theories economiques' Chaire Europeenne, Lecon inaugurale, 19 November.

Tomlinson, M. and Warde, A., (1993) `Social class and change in eating habits' British Food Journal 95(1), pp.3-10.

Burton, M., Tomlinson, M. and Young, T., (1993) `The meat purchase decision' British Food Journal Vol. 95(8).

Pudney, S. and Sutherland, H., (1993) Statistical reliability and microsimulation : the role of sampling, simulation and estimation errors, University of Cambridge, Department of Applied Economics, Microsimulation Unit Discussion Paper Series No. MU 9402, September, revised December.

Harmon, C. and Walker, I., (1994) The endogeneity of schooling, Maynooth College, Economic Working Paper Series, N47/01/94.

Harmon, C. and Walker, I., (1994) The rate of return to schooling : endogeneity bias in the UK, Co. Kildare: Maynooth College, January.

Crook, J. N., Thomas, L. C. and Hamilton, R. (1994) `Credit cards : haves, have-nots and cannot-haves' The Service Industries Journal 14, pp.204-215.

Cowell, F.A., Jenkins, S.P. and Litchfield, J.A., (1994) The changing shape of the UK income distribution : kernel density estimates, University College of Swansea, Department of Economics Discussion Paper Series No. 94-06, February, revised April.

Jenkins, S.P., (1994) The within-household distribution and why it matters : an economists perspective, University College of Swansea, Department of Economics Discussion Paper Series No. 94-05, first published October 1993, revised April 1994.

Jenkins, S.P., (1994) Winners and losers : a portrait of the UK income distribution during the 1980s, University College of Swansea, Department of Economics Discussion Paper Series No. 94-07, April.

Burton, M., Tomlinson, M. and Young, T., (1994) `Consumers' decisions whether or not to purchase meat : a double hurdle analysis of single adult households' Journal of Agricultural Economics 45(2), May, pp.202-212.

Eardley, T. and Corden, A., Earnings from self-employment : the problem of measurement and the effect on income distribution in the UK (Paper prepared for the 23rd General Conference of the International Association for Research on Income and Wealth, New Brunswick, Canada, August 1994) (University of York, Social Policy Research Unit, 1994).

Merrigan, P. and Normandin, M. (1994) Precautionary saving motives: an assessment from U.K. time series of cross-section, Research Centre on Employment and Economic Fluctuations Working Paper No. 29, University du Quebec a Montreal, August.

Hancock, R. and Weir, P. (1994) Pensioners' incomes in Great Britain, 1979-1989: detailed analyses of the General Household and Family Expenditure Surveys, Age Concern Institute of Gerontology Working Paper No. 7 (rev.version), September.

Hildenbrand, W. and Kneip, A. (1994) Aggregate consumers' expenditure and income, Projektbereich A Discussion Paper No. A-456, October.

Burton, M., Dorsett, R. and Young, T. (1995) The decision not to eat meat: an analysis of changing preferences, School of Economic Studies Discussion Paper Series No. 9505, The University of Manchester, January.

Redmond, G., Sutherland, H. and Wilson, M. (1995) Polimod: an outline, The Microsimulation Unit Research Note No. MU/RN/5, University of Cambridge, March.
Sutherland, H. (1995) `Social security versus the minimum wage - which can best tackle low pay poverty?' The New Review, Sept/Oct.

Wilson, M. (1995) Simulating income support entitlement from the 1991 Family Expenditure Survey, The Microsimulation Unit Research Note No. MU/RN/6, University of Cambridge, March.

Wilson, M. (1995) Non-means-tested social security benefits and the Family Expenditure Survey: disaggregating the 1991 data, The Microsimulation Unit Research Note No. MU/RN/7, University of Cambridge, March.

Joshi, H., Dale, A., Ward, C., and Davies, H. (1995) Dependence and independence in the finances of women aged 33, Family and Parenthood Policy and Practice series, London: Policy Studies Centre. ISBN 0-907051-89-8.

McGregor, P. and McKee, P. (1995) `A widening gap?' Democratic Dialogue 2, November, pp.39-44.

Hancock, R., Jarvis, C. and Mueller, G. (1995) The outlook for incomes in retirement: social trends and attitudes, Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, King's College London, December.

Redmond, G. and Sutherland, H. (1995) How has tax and social security policy changed since 1978? A distributional analysis, Working Papers of Department of Applied Economics, Working Paper MU 9508, University of Cambridge, December.

Borooah, V. K. and Collins, G. (1995) Was there a regional dimension to changes in income inequality in the UK over 1982-92? An analysis based on a joint decomposition of income inequality by region and by employment status, Working Papers of Department of Applied Economics, Working Paper MU 9507, University of Cambridge, November.

Bell, B. and Pitt, M. (1995) Trade union decline and the distribution of wages in the UK: evidence from kernel density estimation, Economics Discussion Paper No. 107, Nuffield College Oxford, November.

Harmon, C. and Walker, I. (1995) `Estimates of the economic return to schooling for the United Kingdom' American Economic Review 85(5) December, pp.1278-1286.

Pryke, R. (1995) Taking the measure of poverty : a critique of low-income statistics : alternative estimates and policy implications, Research Monograph 51, London: Institute of Economic Affairs. ISBN 0-255-36371-0.

Harkness, S. (1996) `The gender earnings gap : evidence from the UK' Fiscal Studies, 17(2), pp.1-36.

Holtham, G. and Mayhew, K. (1996) Tackling long-term unemployment, IPPR. ISBN 1-86030-030-8.

Hutton, S. (1996) 'Quasi-cohorts and their validation in a study of progress to independence' IN A. Dale (ed.) Exploiting national survey and census data : longitudinal and partnership analysis, CCSR Occasional Paper 10, CCSR, Faculty of Economic and Social Studies, University of Manchester. ISBN 1-8-9900512-9.

Parker, H. and Sutherland, H. (1996) `Earnings top-up or basic income and a minimum wage' Citizen's Income Bulletin 21, February, pp. 4-8.

Johnson, P., and Stears, G. (1996) Why are older pensioners poorer?, IFS Working Paper Series No. W96/13, Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Lee, N., Halfpenny, P., Jones, A., and Elliott, H. (1996) `Data sources and estimates of charitable giving in Britain' Voluntas 6(1), pp. 39-66.

Eardley, T. and Corden, A. (1996) Self-employed earnings and income distribution: problems of measurement, Social Policy Report 5, University of York: Social Policy Research Unit.

Sutherland, H. (1996) Households, individuals and the re-distribution of income, The Microsimulation Unit Working Paper MU 9601, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge, May.

Sutherland, H. and Wilson, M. (1996) Using Family Expenditure Survey data to simulate income tax in Polimod, The Microsimulation Unit Research Note No. MU/RN/15, Department of Applied Economics: University of Cambridge, May.

Giles, C., Johnson, P., McRae, J. and Taylor, J. (1996) Living with the state: the incomes and work incentives of tenants in the social rented sector, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Duncan, A. and Giles, C. (1996) `Should we subsidise pre-school childcare, and if so, how?' Fiscal Studies 17(3) August 1996, pp.39-61.

Kitson, M., Michie, J., and Sutherland, H. (1996) The fiscal and distributional implications of job generation, Working Paper No. 37, ESRC Centre for Business Research : University of Cambridge, September.

Banks, J. and Tanner, S. (1996) `Savings and wealth from the UK : evidence from micro-data' Fiscal Studies, 17(2), pp. 37-64.

Jarvis, C., Hancock, R., Askham, J., Tinker, A. (1996) Getting around after 60 : a profile of Britain's older population, Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, King's College London: HMSO. ISBN 0-11-321966-0.

Attanasio, O. and Jappelli, T. (1996) The life cycle hypothesis and consumption inequality, IFS Working Paper No.W97/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies, October.

Sutherland, H. (1996) Who benefits from tax cuts? The Microsimulation Unit Research Note No. MU/RN/22, Department of Applied Economics: University of Cambridge, November.

Bingley, P. and Walker, I. (1997) Household unemployment and the labour supply of married women, IFS Working Paper Series W97/1, Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Bingley, P. and Walker, I. (1997) Labour supply with in-work and in-kind transfers, IFS Working Paper Series W97/2, Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Bingley, P. and Walker, I. (1997) There's no such thing as a free lunch : evidence from the effect of in-kind transfers, IFS Working Paper Series W97/7, Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Berloffa, G. (1997) `Temporary and permanent changes in consumption growth' The Economic Journal, 107(441), March, pp.345-358.
Employment Policy Institute (1997) A national minimum wage and in-work benefits, EPI Economic Reports, 11(5), April.

Blundell, R., Browning, M., Crawford, I. (1997) Nonparametric Engel curves and revealed preference, IFS Working Paper No.W97/14, Institute for Fiscal Studies, June.

Dargay, J.M. and Vythoulkas, P.C. (1997) Estimation of a dynamic car ownership model : a pseudo-panel approach, ESRC Transport Studies Unit, University College London, July.

Bourgignon, F., et al (1997) Eur3 : a prototype European tax-benefit model, University of Cambridge, Department of Applied Economics, Microsimulation Unit DAE Working Paper Series No. MU 9703, July.

Hancock, R. (1997) Computing strategy for a European tax-benefit model, University of Cambridge, Department of Applied Economics, Microsimulation Unit DAE Working Paper Series No. MU 9704, July.

Blundell, R. and Preston, I. (1997) Consumption inequality and income uncertainty, IFS Working Paper No.W97/15, Institute for Fiscal Studies, August.

Davies, H., Joshi, H. and Clarke, L., (1997) `Is it cash the deprived are short of?' Jnl. of the Royal Statistical Society A 160(1), pp.107-126.

Sutherland, H. (1997) `Women, men and the redistribution of income' Fiscal
Studies
, 18(1), pp.1-22.

Giles, C., Johnson, P., and McCrae, J. (1997) `Housing benefit and financial returns to employment for tenants in the social sector' Fiscal Studies, 18(1), pp.49-72.

Callan, T., and Sutherland, H. (1997) `The impact of comparable policies in European countries : microsimulation approaches' European Economic Review, 41, p.627-633.

Wilcox, S. and Sutherland, H. (1997) Housing benefit, affordability and work incentives : options for reform, London: National Housing Federation. ISBN 0-86297-366-X.

Equal Opportunities Commission (1997) Income and personal finance, Briefings on Women and Men in Britain series, Manchester: EOC.

Bourguignon, F. et al (1997) Eur 3 : a prototype European tax-benefit model, Document no.97-30, DELTA, Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

Waddams Price, C. and Hancock, R. (1997) 'UK privatisation - effects on households' IN P. Arestis, G. Palma, and M. Sawyer (eds) Markets, unemployment and economic policy, London: Routledge, pp.68-79. ISBN 0415133904.

Blow, L. and Crawford, I. (1997) The distributional effects of taxes on private motoring, IFS Commentary 65, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Kitson, M., Michie, J. and Sutherland, H. (1997) 'The fiscal and distributional implications of job generation' Cambridge Journal of Economics, 21, pp.103-120.

Parker, S.C. (1997) 'The distribution of self-employment income in the United Kingdom' Economic Journal, 107(441), pp.455-456.

Dargay, J. and Vythoulkas, P. The dynamics of car ownership : a cohort analysis, paper given at the UTSG Annual Conference, Dublin, January 1998.

Dargay, J. and Vythoulkas, P. Estimation of dynamic transport demand models using pseudo-panel data, paper given at the 8th World Conference on Transport Research, Antwerp, Belgium, 12-17 July 1998.

Atkinson, A. and Hills, J. (eds.) (1998) Exclusion, employment and opportunity, CASEpaper CASE/4, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics, January.

Davies, H. and Joshi, H. (1998) `Gender and income inequality in the UK 1968-1990 : the feminization of earnings or of poverty?' Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A, 161(1), pp.33-61.

Simister, J. (1998) Women's employment and the ownership of household durable goods in Britain and India, PhD. thesis, University of London, Birkbeck College, Department of Economics.

Giles, C. et al (1998) The distribution of income and wages in the UK and West Germany 1984-1992, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. ISBN 1-873357-80-X.

Bramley, G. and Lancaster, S. (1998) `Modelling local and small area income distributions in Scotland' Environment and Planning C : Government and Policy, special issue.

O'Donoghue, C. and Evans, M. (1998) Recasting safety nets : reforming social assistance in Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom, ESRI Working Paper No.98, University of Cambridge and London School of Economics.

Bourguignon, F. et al (1998) Technical description of Eur 3 : a prototype European tax-benefit model, Microsimulation Unit paper no. MU/RN/25, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Agulnik, P. and Le Grand, J. (1998) Tax relief and partnership pensions, CASEpaper 5, STICERD, London School of Economics.

Attanasio, O. and Banks, J. (1998) Trends in household saving : a tale of two countries, IFS Working Paper No. W98/15, Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Mitton, L. (1998) Polimod : the derivation of variables : 1994/95 FES edition, Microsimulation Unit Research Note MU/RN 27, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Mitton, L. (1998) Polimod : the derivation of variables : 1995/96 FES edition, Microsimulation Unit Research Note MU/RN 28, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Mitton, L. (1998) Polimod : the calculation of VAT and excise duties on household expenditure : 1994/95 and 1995/96 FES edition, Microsimulation Unit Research Note MU/RN 29, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Mitton, L. (1998) Updating Polimod, Microsimulation Unit Research Note MU/RN 30, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Mitton, L. (1998) Modelling changes to the means test for civil legal aid, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Waddams Price, C. and Hancock, R. (1998) 'Distributional effects of liberalising UK residential utility markets' Fiscal Studies, 19(3), pp.295-319.

Waddams Price, C. and Biermann, A. (1998) Fuel poverty in Britain : expenditure on fuels 1993-94 to 1995-96, London: Gas Consumers Council.

Blundell, R. et al (1998) Collective labor supply : heterogeneity and non-participation, IFS Working Paper Series No. W98/20, Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Banks, J. and Tanner, S. (1998) Taxing charitable giving, IFS Commentary 75, Institute for Fiscal Studies. ISBN 1-873357-85-0.

O'Donoghue, C. and Evans, M. (1998) Recasting safety nets : reforming social assistance in Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom, DAE Working Papers Amalgamated Series No.9817, The Microsimulation Unit, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Atkinson, A.B. and Sutherland, H. (1998) Microsimulation and policy debate : a case study of the minimum pension guarantee in Britain, DAE Working Papers Amalgamated Series No.9815, The Microsimulation Unit, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Wetzels, C. (1998) Squeezing birth into working life : household panel data analyses comparing Great Britain, the Netherlands and Sweden, Tinbergen Institute Research Series, University of Amsterdam.

O'Donoghue, C. and Sutherland, H. (1998) Accounting for the family : the treatment of marriage and the children in European income tax systems, Innocenti Occasional Papers Economic and Social Policy Series EPS 65, Florence, Italy: UNICEF.

Parker, H. and Sutherland, H. (1998) 'How to get rid of the poverty trap : Basic Income plus national minimum wage' Citizen's Income Bulletin, 25, February.

Hildenbrand, W., Kneip, A. and Utikal, K. (1998) A non-parametric analysis of distributions of household income and attributes, Projektbereich A, Discussion Paper No. A-575, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet, Bonn, Germany.

Oppenheim, C. and Sutherland, H. (1998) 'Welfare to work : taxes and benefits' IN J. McCormick and C. Oppenheim (eds) Welfare in working order, London: Institute for Public Policy Research. ISBN 1860300626.

Madre, J-L. and Berri, A. (1998) 'Multinational long term forecasting of motorization behaviour and car fleet' Proceedings of the 1998 FISITA World Automotive Congress, Sept.27-Oct.1, 1998, Paris.

A.Berri (1999) 'Longitudinal analysis of car ownership in different countries : a demographic approach' IN M. Labbe and M. Patriksson (eds) Transportation research : selected papers from the 6th Meeting of the EURO Working Group on Transportation, held 9-11 Sept. 1998, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, Norvell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Burchardt, T., Hills, J. and Propper, C. (1999) Private welfare and public policy, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. ISBN 1-902633-00-8.

Callan, T. et al (1999) Comparative analysis of basic income proposals : UK and
Ireland
, Microsimulation Unit Research Note no.31, February, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Immervoll, H. et al (1999) Budgeting for fairness? The distributional effects of three Labour budgets, Microsimulation Unit Research Note no.32, March, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Lee, S. (1999) The usefulness of regression analysis : an investigation into factors affecting the head of household's expenditure on food, dissertation for MSc Advanced Social Research Methods and Statistics, Department of Sociology, City University.

Hildenbrand, W. and Kneip, A. (1999) 'Demand aggregation under structural stability' Journal of Mathematical Economics, 31, pp.81-109.

Kneip, A. and Utikal, K.J. (1999) Inference for density families using functional principal component analysis, Projektbereich A, Discussion Paper A-598, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet, Bonn, Germany.

Mitton, L. and Sutherland, H. (1999) Maintaining and updating POLIMOD, Microsimulation Unit Research Note No. MU/RN/33, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Dargay, J. M., J-L. Madre and A. Berri Car ownership dynamics seen through the follow-up of cohorts: a comparison of France and the UK, paper presented at 79th Annual Conference of the Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., USA, January 9-13, 2000.

Dargay, J.M. and Vythoulkas, P.C. (1999) 'Estimation of a dynamic car-ownership model: a pseudo-panel approach' Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 33(3), pp.287-302.

Immervoll, H. (2000) Fiscal drag - an automatic stabiliser?, University of Cambridge, Department of Applied Economics Working Paper 25, September.

Taylor, R. (2000) Guidelines for creating clusters using grade correspondence analysis : practical and technical issues Microsimulation Unit Research Note No. 39, September, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Koeniger, W. (2000) Labor and financial market interactions: the case of labor income risk and car insurance in the UK 1969-95, Italy: European University Institute.

Dayal, N. et al (2000) Enhancing Family Resources Survey income data with expenditure data from the Family Expenditure Survey : data comparisons Microsimulation Unit Research Note No. 40, December, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Daly, M. (2000) The gender division of welfare : the impact of the British and German welfare states, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Taylor, R., Sutherland, H. and Gomulka, J. (2001) Using POLIMOD to evaluate alternative methods of expenditure imputation Microsimulation Unit Research Note No. 38, January, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Piachaud, D. and Sutherland, H. (2001) 'Child poverty in Britain and the new Labour government' Journal of Social Policy, 30, pp.95-118.

Sutherland, H. and Piachaud, D. (2001) 'Reducing child poverty in Britain : an assessment of government policy 1997-2001' The Economic Journal, 111 No.469, pp.F85-F101.

Dickens, R. and Ellwood, D.T. (2001) Whither poverty in Great Britain and the United States? The determinants of changing poverty and whether work will work, National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 8253, Cambridge, MA, USA: NBER.

Dargay, J.M., Madre, J-L. and Berri, A. (2001?) 'Car ownership dynamics seen through the follow-up of cohorts' Transportation Research record, 1733, paper no. 00-0749.

Dargay, J.M. (2001) 'The effect of income on car ownership: evidence of asymmetry'
Transportation Research Part A, 35, pp.807-821.

Dargay, J.M. (2002) 'Determinants of car ownership in rural and urban areas: a pseudo-panel analysis'
Transportation Research Part E, 35, pp.351-366.

Sawkins, J.W. and Dickie, V.A. (2002) National Lottery participation and expenditure: the first five years, Discussion Paper in Economics No. 2002/2, Economics Division, School of Management, Heriot-Watt University.

Saunders, P., Bradshaw, J. and Hirst, M. (2002) 'Using household data to develop an income poverty line' Social Policy and Administration, 36(3), pp.217-234.

Immervoll, H. and O'Donoghue, C. (2002) Welfare benefits and work incentives: an analysis of the distribution of net replacement rates in Europe using EUROMOD, a multi-country microsimulation model, EUROMOD Working Paper No. EM4/01, Microsimulation Unit, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Immervoll, H. (2002) The distribution of average and marginal effective tax rates in European Union member states, EUROMOD Working Paper No. EM2/02, Microsimulation Unit, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Feres, P. et al (2002) Indicators for social inclusion in the European Union: how responsive are they to macro-level changes? EUROMOD Working Paper No. EM3/02, Microsimulation Unit, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Sawkins, J. W. and Dickie, V. A. (2003) 'National Lottery participation and expenditure: preliminary results using a two-stage modelling approach' Applied Economics Letters, vol.9, pp.769-773.

Immervoll, H. (2004) Falling up the stairs: an exploration of the effects of 'bracket creep' on household incomes, EUROMOD Working Paper No. EM3/04, Microsimulation Unit, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Verbist, G. (2004) Redistributive effect and the progressivity of taxes: an international comparison across the EU using EUROMOD, EUROMOD Working Paper No. EM5/04, Microsimulation Unit, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Mabbett, D. (2004) Fiscal stabilisers in Europe: the macroeconomic impact of tax and benefit systems, EUROMOD Working Paper No. EM7/04, Microsimulation Unit, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Atkinson, A.B. and Meulders, D. (2004) EU action on social inclusion and gender mainstreaming, EUROMOD Working Paper No. EM8/04, Microsimulation Unit, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Grawe, N.D. (2004) 'The 3-day week of 1974 and earnings data reliability in the Family Expenditure Survey and the National Child Development Study', Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 66(4), pp.567-579.

Mercader-Prats, M. and Levy, H. (2004) The role of tax and transfers in reducing personal income inequality in Europe's regions: evidence from EUROMOD, EUROMOD Working Paper No. EM9/04, Microsimulation Unit, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Stephens, M.(Jr.) and Ward-Batts, J. (2004) 'The Impact of Separate Taxation on the Intra-Household Allocation of Assets: Evidence from the U.K' Journal of Public Economics, 88(9-10), August, pp.1989-2007.

Atkinson, A.B. (2005) EUROMOD and the development of EU social policy, EUROMOD Working Paper No. EM1/05, Microsimulation Unit, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Verbist, G. (2005) Replacement incomes and taxes: a distributional analysis for the EU-15 countries, EUROMOD Working Paper No. EM2/05, Microsimulation Unit, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Orsini, K. and Spadaro, A. (2005) Sharing resources within the household: a multi-country microsimulation analysis of the determinants of intrahousehold 'strategic weight' differentials and their distributional outcomes, EUROMOD Working Paper No. EM3/05, Microsimulation Unit, Department of
Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Sutherland, H. and Lietz, C. (2005) Social indicators and other income statistics using EUROMOD: an assessment of the 2001 baseline and changes 1998-2001, EUROMOD Working Paper No. EM6/05, Microsimulation Unit, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.

Sutherland, H. (ed) (2005) Micro-level analysis of the European Social Agenda: combating poverty and social exclusion through changes in social and fiscal policy, EUROMOD Working Paper No. EM8/05, Microsimulation Unit, Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge, March.

Brown, S., et al. (2006) 'Risk preference and employment contract type', Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A, 169(4), pp.849-863.

Dorling, D. et al. (2007) Poverty and wealth across Britain 1968 to 2005, Findings No.2077, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

Dorling, D. et al. (2007) Poverty, wealth and place in Britain, 1968 to 2005, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation/Policy Press. ISBN 978 1 86134 995 8.


The Institute of Alcohol Studies (IAS) has produced a 'Data Dictionary' covering summary information on UK-based survey series (including the FES) that include any data on alcohol consumption. Further information and links to the dictionary documents may be found on the IAS Data Dictionary - Table of Contents web page.

Chai, A. and A. Moneta (2009) 'Comparing shapes of Engel curves', Economics Bulletin, 29(2), pp.1164-1170; also published as Chai, A. and Moneta, A. (2008), Comparing shapes of Engel curves, Jena Economic Research Papers, no.093.

Chai, A. and A. Moneta (2008) Satiation, escaping satiation, and structural change: some evidence from the evolution of Engel curves, Papers on Economics and Evolution, no. 0818.

Blundell, R., Crawford, C. and Jin, W.(M.) (2013) What can wages and employment tell us about the UK's productivity puzzle?, IFS Working Papers, W13/11, June. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/wp.ifs.2013.1311. Retrieved August 19, 2013 from http://www.ifs.org.uk/wps/wp201311.pdf

Ratanabanchuen, R. (2013) Demographic transition, pension schemes' investment, and the financial market, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE).

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