UK Data Service data catalogue record for:
|Title:||1970 British Cohort Study: Ten-Year Follow-Up, 1980|
|Alternative title:||BCS3; BCS70; Child Health and Education Study|
|Series:||1970 British Cohort Study [1970 British Cohort Study]|
|Depositor:||Bynner, J.M., City University. Social Statistics Research Unit|
|Depositor:||University of London. Institute of Education. Centre for Longitudinal Studies|
Butler, N., University of Bristol. Department of Child Health
Bynner, J.M., City University. Social Statistics Research Unit
University of London. Institute of Education. Centre for Longitudinal Studies
Joseph Rowntree Memorial Trust
Department of Education and Science
Department of Health and Social Security
Manpower Services Commission
National Institute of Child Health and Development
Fieldwork organisation: Local Education Authority and Area Health Authority staff (England and Wales); Regional Council and Health Board staff (Scotland).
Field staff: health visitors, teachers, school nurses, doctors.
Data cleaning: University of Bristol, Department of Child Health (1980-82); Social Statistics Research Unit, City University (1996-97).
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Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.Background
The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) began in 1970 when data were collected about the births and families of babies born in the United Kingdom in one particular week in 1970. The first wave, called the British Births Survey, was carried out by the National Birthday Trust Fund in association with the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Its aims were to examine the social and biological characteristics of the mother in relation to neonatal morbidity, and to compare the results with those of the National Child Development Study (NCDS), which commenced in 1958 (held separately at the UK Data Archive under GN 33004). Participants from Northern Ireland, who had been included in the birth survey, were dropped from the study in all subsequent sweeps, which only included respondents from Great Britain.
Since BCS70 began, there have been eight further full data collection exercises in order to monitor the cohort members' health, education, social and economic circumstances. These took place when respondents were aged 5, in 1975 (held under SN 2699), aged 10, in 1980 (SN 3723), aged 16, in 1986 (SN 3535), aged 26, in 1996 (SN 3833), aged 30, 1999-2000 (SN 5558), aged 34, in 2004-2005 (SN 5585) and aged 42 in 2012 (SN 7473). The first two sweeps (at 5 and 10 years) were carried out by the Department of Child Health at Bristol University. During these times, the survey was known as the Child Health and Education Study (CHES). The 16-year survey was carried out by the International Centre for Child Studies and named Youthscan. The Social Statistics Research Unit (SSRU) became involved with the BCS70 study at this time, and eventually changed its name to the Centre for Longitudinal Studies (CLS), based at the Institute of Education, University of London. With each successive attempt, the scope of BCS70 has broadened from a strictly medical focus at birth, to encompass physical and educational development at the age of 5, physical, educational and social development at the ages of 10 and 16, and physical, educational, social and economic development at 26 years and beyond. Further information about the BCS70 and may be found on the Centre for Longitudinal Studies website. As well as BCS70, the CLS now also conducts the NCDS series.
A separate dataset covering response to BCS70 over all nine waves is available under SN 5641, 1970 British Cohort Study Response Dataset, 1970-2012. Users are advised to order this study alongside the other waves of BCS70.
Subsample, supplementary and related studies
A range of sub-sample and supplementary surveys have also been conducted, such as the Ten-year Follow-up Special Needs Survey (held under SN 7064) and a supplementary survey of head teachers (held under SN 5225) at the time of the 16-year follow-up in 1986. A related study, Coding of Text Data from BCS70 at 10 and 16 Years: Health Care Utilisation of School Aged Children, 1970-1986, is also held under SN 4126. The aim of this project was to code text variables from BCS70 files, selected from the ten- and 16-year follow-ups to provide information about health care utilisation by the target age group.
How to access genetic and/or bio-medical sample data from a range of longitudinal surveys:
A useful overview of the governance routes for applying for genetic and bio-medical sample data, which are not available through the UK Data Service, can be found at Governance of data and sample access on the METADAC (Managing Ethico-social, Technical and Administrative issues in Data Access) website.
|BCS70 Ten-Year Follow-up
The ten-year follow-up was the second full national follow-up of the BCS70 cohort. It was designed to review and evaluate mid-childhood health, care, education, social and family environment throughout Britain. A number of considerations influenced the development of the survey instrumentation used for the Ten-year Follow-up. A major factor was the desire to examine ten year-old children's educational achievement and the ways in which it is influenced by other events, and a wide range of earlier developmental, educational, social and health factors recorded previously on the same cohort and in particular the effects of: pre-school education and daycare; and learning difficulties. Health itself was another major focus of the follow-up, to provide a comparison with information gathered during the Five-year Follow-up. The comprehensive nature of the data gathered in this longitudinal BCS study from birth onwards enables examination of the effects on the 10-year child's education, health and general progress, of perinatal problems, serious childhood illnesses and critical episodes in the family or social environment. A separate subset study conducted at the same time, covering ten-year follow-up respondents with special educational needs, the 1970 British Cohort Study: Ten-Year Special Needs Survey, 1980 is held under SN 7064.
For the sixth edition (June 2016) a small number of primary identifiers (BCSID) have been changed to realign them to previous sweeps of data. See the documentation for full details of the work done.
The BCS70 Ten-year Follow-up made use of some 15 separate survey documents, comprising manuals, assessments, self-completion questionnaires, interview schedules, and a medical examination record. The questionnaires were distributed as two packs known as the Educational Pack and the Health Pack. Five types of instruments were used: self-completion questionnaires (completed by the child, parent, and teacher); interviews (with parents); medical examination (of the child); tests (completed by the child); and measurement scales (completed by the child, parents and teachers). Information gathered from parents included: the child's medical history; accidents; hospital admissions; clinic attendance; use of health services; the child at school; child's skills; child's behaviour; parent's level of education; occupation of parents; type of accommodation; household amenities; and type of neighbourhood. Information provided by the medical examination included: disability and chronic illness; height and weight; head circumference; blood pressure; pulse; near and distant vision; audiometry; laterality; and co-ordination. Information provided by schools included: school composition: curriculum; discipline and ethos; teacher's assessment of child's ability and behaviour. Information provided by the study subjects included: academic success: smoking; attitudes to school; food and drink consumed; locus of control; self-esteem; personality; social judgement; and mathematics; reading; vocabulary; writing, copying and spelling tests.
The measurement scales employed included: Rutter A Scale of child behaviour deviance; Conners Hyperactivity/Behaviour Scale; Neurodevelopment Scale; Lifeskills Scale; Expressive Language Scale; Reading Test, Mathematics Test, Verbal and Non-Verbal Reasoning Test, Picture Language Comprehension Test; Lawseq (Self-esteem Scale); Caraloc (Locus of Control Scale); Malaise Inventory (Mother).
|Time period:||1975 - 1980|
|Dates of fieldwork:||1980 - 1981|
Health Authority Regions
Local Education Authorities
Standard Statistical Regions
|Kind of data:||
Individual (micro) level
BCS70 cohort members; parents of BCS70 cohort members; teachers in schools attended by BCS70 cohort members.
No sampling (total universe)
All members of the BCS70 cohort who could be traced were included in the sample, plus their parents and teachers.
|Number of units:||16,500 (target) 14,875 (obtained)|
|Method of data collection:||
Face-to-face interview; Self-completion; Psychological measurements; Educational measurements; Clinical measurements; Physical measurements
Face-to-face interviews were conducted with parents. Self-completion questionnaires were completed by children, parents and teachers. Psychological and educational measurements were collected from children. Children had medical examinations, during which clinical and physical measurements were taken.
|Weighting:||No weighting used|
|ABILITY EVALUATION||ABILITY GROUPING||ABILITY|
|ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT||ACCIDENTS||ADVANCED LEVEL EXAMINATIONS|
|AGE||ALCOHOL USE||ALCOHOLIC DRINKS|
|BACTERIAL AND VIRUS DISEASES||BATHROOMS||BEHAVIOURAL DISORDERS|
|BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS||BEVERAGES||BOARDING SCHOOLS|
|CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM||CENTRAL HEATING||CEREAL PRODUCTS|
|CEREALS||CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION||CHILD BEHAVIOUR|
|CHILD BENEFITS||CHILD CARE||CHILD DEVELOPMENT|
|CHILDREN IN CARE||CHILDREN||CLASS SIZE|
|CLINICAL TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS||COGNITIVE PROCESSES||COMMUNICATION SKILLS|
|CONGENITAL DISORDERS||CONTACT LENSES||COOKING|
|DENTAL EXAMINATIONS||DENTAL TREATMENT||DENTISTS|
|DEPRESSION||DIGESTIVE SYSTEM DISORDERS||DISABILITIES|
|DISABLED CHILDREN||DISEASES||DOMESTIC APPLIANCES|
|DOMESTIC RESPONSIBILITIES||DRUG USE||EATING DISORDERS|
|ECONOMIC ACTIVITY||EDIBLE FATS||EDUCATIONAL ATTENDANCE|
|EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND||EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT||EDUCATIONAL EXPECTATIONS|
|EDUCATIONAL GROUPING||EDUCATIONAL TESTS||EGGS (FOOD)|
|EMPLOYMENT HISTORY||ENDOCRINE DISORDERS||ENURESIS|
|EPILEPSY||ETHNIC GROUPS||EYESIGHT TESTS|
|FAMILIES||FAMILY INCOME||FAMILY INFLUENCE|
|FAMILY LIFE||FAMILY MEMBERS||FATHER'S ECONOMIC ACTIVITY|
|FATHER'S OCCUPATION||FATHERS||FIELDS OF STUDY|
|FISH (AS FOOD)||FOOD||FRIENDS|
|FRIENDSHIP||GRAMMAR SKILLS||GREAT BRITAIN|
|HANDICRAFTS||HANDWRITING SKILLS||HEALTH CONSULTATIONS|
|HEALTH SERVICES||HEALTH VISITORS||HEALTH|
|HEARING AIDS||HEARING IMPAIRMENTS||HEARING|
|HEATING EQUIPMENT||HEATING SYSTEMS||HEIGHT (PHYSIOLOGY)|
|HOSPITAL OUTPATIENT SERVICES||HOSPITAL SERVICES||HOSPITALIZED CHILDREN|
|HOURS OF WORK||HOUSEHOLD HEAD'S OCCUPATIONAL STATUS||HOUSEHOLDS|
|HOUSEWORK||HOUSING CONDITIONS||HOUSING TENURE|
|HOUSING||HUMAN BEHAVIOUR||HUMAN SETTLEMENT|
|INTELLECTUAL IMPAIRMENT||INTELLIGENCE TESTS||INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT|
|INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS||KITCHENS||KNOWLEDGE (AWARENESS)|
|LATERALITY||LEARNING DISABILITIES||LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES|
|MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS||MEDICAL PRESCRIPTIONS||MEDICAL RECORDS|
|MENTAL DISORDERS||MILK||MOBILE HOMES|
|MORAL CONCEPTS||MORTGAGES||MOTHER'S OCCUPATION|
|MOTHERS||MOTOR PROCESSES||MOTOR VEHICLES|
|NEIGHBOURHOODS||NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION||OCCUPATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS|
|ONE-PARENT FAMILIES||ORDINARY LEVEL EXAMINATIONS||PARENTAL ENCOURAGEMENT|
|PARENTAL SUPERVISION||PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIP||PARENTS|
|PARENT-SCHOOL RELATIONSHIP||PART-TIME EMPLOYMENT||PATIENTS|
|PEER-GROUP RELATIONSHIPS||PERSONALITY||PHYSICAL DISABILITIES|
|PHYSICIANS||PHYSIOTHERAPY||PLACE OF BIRTH|
|READING (ACTIVITY)||READING SKILLS||READING TESTS|
|RENTED ACCOMMODATION||RESIDENTIAL CHILD CARE||RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY|
|RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES||ROAD TRAFFIC||ROOMS|
|SCHOOL CLASSES||SCHOOL DISCIPLINE||SCHOOL MEALS|
|SENSORY IMPAIRMENTS||SIGHT||SKIN DISEASES|
|SLEEP DISORDERS||SMOKING||SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR|
|SOCIAL CLASS||SOCIAL HOUSING||SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS|
|SOCIAL WORKERS||SOFT DRINKS||SPECIAL EDUCATION|
|SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION||SPECIAL NEEDS STUDENTS||SPECTACLES|
|SPEECH IMPAIRMENTS||SPEECH THERAPY||SPELLING SKILLS|
|SURGICAL AIDS||SYMPTOMS||TEACHING METHODS|
|UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS||UROGENITAL DISORDERS||VERBAL SKILLS|
|VISION IMPAIRMENTS||VOCABULARY SKILLS||VOCATIONAL EDUCATION CERTIFICATES|
|WEIGHT (PHYSIOLOGY)||WORKING MOTHERS||WRITING SKILLS|
|Date of release:|
|First edition:||18 September 1997|
|Latest edition:||23 June 2016 (6th Edition)|
|Copyright:||Copyright Centre for Longitudinal Studies|
The depositor has specified that registration is required and standard conditions of use apply. The depositor may be informed about usage.
Additional special conditions of use also apply. See terms and conditions of access for further information.
A fully documented database, which will contain all BCS70 data, is in preparation at CLS and will also be made available via the UK Data Service. Until then, it is possible to obtain data not already held here from the CLS directly via:
BCS70 User Support Group, Centre for Longitudinal Studies, UCL Institute of Education, University of London, 20 Bedford Way, London WC1H OAL.
Tel: 0207 612 6864
Fax: 0207 612 6880
Further information may also be found on the Centre for Longitudinal Studies website.
|Availability:||UK Data Service|
|Contact:||Get in touch|
|Title||File Name||Size (KB)|
|User Guide (Part 1)||a3723uab.pdf||4701|
|User Guide (Part 2)||a3723ubb.pdf||3777|
|User Guide (Part 3)||a3723ucb.pdf||8659|
|User Guide (Part 4)||a3723udb.pdf||2827|
|User Guide (Part 5)||a3723ueb.pdf||2555|
|User Guide (Part 6)||a3723ufb.pdf||1665|
|Ten-year Follow-Up Audiogram Results||bcs70_age10_audiograms_guide.pdf||578|
|Derived Variables at 1980 Sweep (Ten-Year Follow-up)||bcs70_derived_variables_at_1980_sweep.pdf||314|
|Revised Region Variables||bcs70_revised_region_variables.pdf||392|
|CLS Confidentiality and Data Security Review||cls_confidentiality_and_data_security_review.pdf||25|
|Realignment of BCS70 identifiers||realignment_of_bcs70_identifiers_documentation.pdf||532|
|Study information and citation||UKDA_Study_3723_Information.htm||7|
By principal investigator(s):
Publications based on BCS70 may be found on the Centre for Longitudinal Studies website.
Chamberlain, G., et al. (1975) British births 1970, London: Heinemann.
Crawley, H.F. (1993) `The energy, nutrient and food intakes of teenagers 16-17 years in Britain: 1. energy, macronutrients and non-starch polysaccharides', British Journal of Nutrition, 70, pp. 15-26.
Crawley, H.F. (1993) `The role of breakfast cereals in the diets of 16-17 year-old teenagers in Britain', Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 6, pp. 39-50.
Furlong, A. (1993) Schooling for jobs: changes in the career preparation of British secondary school children, Aldershot: Avebury.
Lewis, S., et al. (1995) `Prospective study of risk factors for early and persistent wheezing in childhood', European Respiratory Journal, 8, pp.349-356.
Goodman, A. and Butler N. R. (1996) The 1970 British Cohort Study: the Sixteen-year Follow-up - a guide to the BCS70 16-year data available at the Economic and Social Research Council Data Archive, London: Social Statistics Research Unit, City University.
Butler, N., Despotidou, S., and Shepherd, P. (1997) 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) Ten-year Follow-up (formerly known as the Child Health and Education Study, CHES): a guide to the BCS 10-year data available at the Economic and Social Research Council Data Archive, London: Social Statistics Research Unit, City University.
Bynner, J., Ferri, E. and Shepherd, P. (1997) Twenty-something in the 1990s: getting on, getting by, getting nowhere, Aldershot: Ashgate.
Kallis, C. (2004) CLS Cohort Studies Data Note 4: BCS70 partnership histories, Centre for Multilevel Modelling, Bedford Group for Lifecourse and Statistical Studies, Institute of Education, University of London.
Steele, F., et al. (2005) 'The relationship between childbearing and transitions from marriage and cohabitation in Britain', Demography, 42.
Steele, F., et al. (2005) 'Changes in the relationship between the outcomes of cohabiting partnerships and fertility among young British women: evidence from the 1958 and 1970 Birth Cohort Studies', paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Philadelphia, 2005.
Resulting from secondary analysis:
Stewart, A. and Orme, J. (1989) `Teenage smoking and health education' , Health Visitor, March, pp.91-94.
Roker, D. (1992) `The private sector of education: a review of past research and recommendations for future work', Educational Studies, 3, pp.227-298.
Green, F., Hoskins, M. and Montgomery, S. (1994) `The effects of training, further education and YTS on the earnings of young employees', Discussion Paper in Economics, University of Leicester.
Banks, M.H. and Roker, D. (1996) `Work attitudes of private and state schools: evidence from the Youthscan study', British Journal of Education and Work.
Al-saadoon, M. A. (1999) Antisocial behaviour and residential care teenagers, dissertation for MSc Community Paediatrics, University of Nottingham.
Cheung, Yin Bun (1999) 'The blood pressure of heavier and lighter twins: support for the fetal origin hypothesis?', British Medical Journal, 27, October.
Cheung, Yin Bun (2001) 'Adjustment for selection bias in cohort studies: an application of a probit model with selectivity to life course epidemiology', Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 54, pp.1238-1243.
Cheung, Yin Bun (2002) 'Zero-inflated models for regression analysis of count data: a study of growth and development', Statistics in Medicine, 21, pp.1461-1469.
Cheung, Yin Bun (2002) 'Early origins and adult correlates of psychosomatic distress', Social Science and Medicine, 55, pp.937-948.
Kiernan, K. (2003) Cohabitation and divorce across nations and generations, CASEpaper 65, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics, March.
Pevalin, D.J. (2003) Outcomes in childhood and adulthood by mother's age at birth: evidence from the 1970 British Cohort Study, Working Paper of the Institute for Social and Economic Research, Paper 2003-31, Colchester: University of Essex.
Ermisch, J. F. and Pevalin, D.J. (2003) Who has a child as a teenager?, Working Paper of the Institute for Social and Economic Research, Paper 2003-30, Colchester: University of Essex.
Ermisch, J. F. and Pevalin, D.J. (2003) 'Does a 'teen-birth' have longer-term impacts on the mother? Evidence from the 1970 British Cohort Study, Working Paper of the Institute for Social and Economic Research, Paper 2003-28, Colchester: University of Essex.
Gale, C.R. and Martyn, C.N. (2004) 'Birth weight and later risk of depression in a national birth', British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, p.28-33.
Ermisch, J.F. and Pevalin, D.J. (2004) 'Early childbearing and housing choices', Journal of Housing Economics, 13(3), pp.170-194.
Hobcraft, J. and Sigle-Rushton, W. (2005) An exploration of childhood antecedents of female adult malaise in two British birth cohorts: combining Bayesian model averaging and recursive partitioning, CASEpaper 95, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics, March.
Batty, G.D., Deary, I.J. and Schoon, I. et al. (2007) 'Childhood mental ability in relation to cause-specific accidents: the 1970 British Cohort Study', QJM, 100(7), pp.405-414.
Batty, G.D., Deary, I.J. and Schoon, I. et al. (2007) 'Childhood mental ability in relation to food intake and physical activity in adulthood: the 1970 British Cohort Study', Pediatrics, 119(1), pp.38-45.
Gale, C.R., Deary, I.J. and Schoon, I. et al. 'IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood: the 1970 British Cohort Study', British Medical Journal, Feb 3, 334(7587), p.245.
Batty, G.D. et al. (2007) 'Mental ability across childhood in relation to risk factors for premature mortality in adult life: the 1970 British Cohort Study', Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61, pp.997-1003.
Deary, I.J., Batty, G.D. and Gale, C.R. (2008) 'Bright children become enlightened adults', Psychological Sciences, 19, pp.1-6.
Gale, C.R., Batty, G.D. and Deary, I.J. (2008) 'Locus of control at age 10 years and health outcomes and behaviors at age 30 years: the 1970 British Cohort Study', Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, pp.397-403.
Leuze, K. (2007) 'What makes for a good start? Occupation-specific higher education and graduate career mobility', International Journal of Sociology, 37(2), pp.29-53.
Leuze, K. and Allmendinger, J. (2008) 'Ungleiche Karrierepfade? – Die Bedeutung institutioneller Differenzierung für stratifizierte Arbeitsmarkterträge von Hochschulabsolventen', in B. Kehm (ed.)Hochschule im Wandel, Frankfurt: Die Universität als Forschungsgegenstand.
Taulbut, M. and Walsh, D. (2013) Poverty, parenting and poor health: comparing early years' experiences in Scotland, England and three city regions, Glasgow Centre for Population Health, February. Retrieved August 2, 2013 from http://www.gcph.co.uk/assets/0000/3817/Poverty__parenting_and_poor_health.pdf
Greaves, E. (2013) 'Marriage, cohabitation and child outcomes', paper presented at Understanding Society conference, University of Essex, Thursday 25 July 2013.
Hirvonen, K. (2013) 'Measuring catch-up growth in malnourished populations', Annals of Human Biology, doi:10.3109/03014460.2013.827239
Rojas Blanco, L.C. (2013) The influence of gender beliefs and early exposure to math, science and technology in female degree choices, Ph.D. thesis, University of York. Retrieved January 6, 2014 from White Rose eTheses Online, http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/4695/
Patrick, M.E., Maggs, J.L., Greene, K., Morgan, N.R. and Schulenberg, J.E. (2014) 'The link between mother and adolescent substance use: Intergenerational findings from the British Cohort Study', Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, 5, pp.56-63. PMC3906729. doi:10.14301/llcs.v5i1.241
Andersson, M.A. and Maralani, V. (2015) 'Early-life characteristics and educational disparities in smoking', Social Science and Medicine, 144, pp.138-147.
Mawditt, C., Sacker, A., Britton, A., Kelly, Y. and Cable, N. (2016) 'The clustering of health-related behaviours in a British population sample: testing for cohort differences', Preventive Medicine, 88, pp.95-107.
Upton, G.J.G. (2016) Categorical data analysis by example, Oxford: Wiley. ISBN: 978-1-119-30786-0.
Kashefpakdel, E. T. and Percy, C. (2016) 'Career education that works: an economic analysis using the British Cohort Study', Journal of Education and Work, 30(3), pp. 217-234.
Connelly, R. and Gayle, V. (2017) 'An investigation of social class inequalities in general cognitive ability in two British birth cohorts', British Journal of Sociology. doi:10.1111/1468-4446.12343