Catalogue

UK Data Service data catalogue record for:

British Social Attitudes Survey, 1998

Title details

SN: 4131
Title: British Social Attitudes Survey, 1998
Alternative title: BSA
Persistent identifier: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-4131-1
Series: British Social Attitudes Survey [British Social Attitudes Survey, 1983-]
Depositor: National Centre for Social Research
Principal investigator(s): Social and Community Planning Research
Sponsor(s): Gatsby Charitable Foundation
Countryside Agency
Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions
Department of Health
Department for Education and Employment
Department of Trade and Industry
Department of Social Security
Economic and Social Research Council
Leverhulme Trust
Nuffield Foundation
Robert Gavron Charitable Trust
Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust
Wellcome Trust
Grant number: M543285001
Other acknowledgements: P ; 1725
Social Statistics Laboratory at the University of Strathclyde for writing the SPSS setup file and managing the link to the MIDAS database.

Citation

The citation for this study is:

Social and Community Planning Research. (2000). British Social Attitudes Survey, 1998. [data collection]. UK Data Service. SN: 4131, http://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-4131-1

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Subject Categories

Social attitudes and behaviour - Society and culture
Social indicators and quality of life - Society and culture

Abstract

Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.

Background
The British Social Attitudes (BSA) survey series began in 1983. The series is designed to produce annual measures of attitudinal movements which will complement large-scale government surveys such as the General Lifestyle Survey and the Labour Force Survey (held under GN 33090 and GN 33246 respectively), which deal largely with facts and behaviour patterns, as well as the data on party political attitudes produced by the polls. One of its main purposes is to allow the monitoring of patterns of continuity and change, and the examination of the relative rates at which attitudes, in respect of a range of social issues, change over time. Some questions are asked regularly, others less often. Funding for BSA comes a number of sources (including government departments, the Economic and Social Research Council and other research foundations), but final responsibility for the coverage and wording of the annual questionnaires rests with NatCen Social Research (formerly Social and Community Planning Research). The BSA has been conducted every year since 1983, except in 1988 and 1992 when core funding was devoted to the British Election Study (BES).

Further information about the series and links to publications may be found on the NatCen Social Research British Social Attitudes web page. In addition, a compilation of BSA data and documentation, including interactive descriptive statistics, is available via the BritSoCat web site, maintained by the Centre for Comparative European Survey Data.

International Social Survey Programme (ISSP)
The ISSP is run by a group of research organisations in different countries (currently 48 countries), each of which undertakes to field annually an agreed module of questions on a chosen topic area. Since 1985, an ISSP module has been included in one or more of the BSA self-completion questionnaires. Each module is chosen for repetition at intervals to allow comparisons both between countries and over time. See the ISSP catalogue record for further details, held under SN 7259.

Main Topics:
The BSA questionnaire normally comprises two parts, one administered face-to-face and one for self-completion (since 1985, one of the self-completion option questionnaires includes the ISSP module). Each year the interview questionnaire contains a number of 'core' questions, which are repeated in most years. In addition, a wide range of background and classificatory questions is included. The remainder of the questionnaire is devoted to a series of questions (modules) on a range of social, economic, political and moral issues - some asked regularly, others less often. Cross-indexes of those questions asked more than once appear in the reports.
For the 1998 survey, information was collected on a number of social issues including the following: political attitudes, housing, public spending, welfare, health care, labour market issues, genetic research, citizenship, local government, the countryside, and transport. Demographic data were also collected. The topic of the ISSP element of the BSA questionnaire was religion.

Standard Measures
The questionnaires contain three scales developed by researchers involved in the British Social Attitudes survey series and the British Election Study (BES) series. These are: 'libertarian/authoritarian'; 'left/right'; and 'welfarist'. For details see the Technical Report on the 1998 BSA survey.

Coverage, universe, methodology

Dates of fieldwork: April 1998 - September 1998
Country: Great Britain
Spatial units: Council Areas
Counties
Government Office Regions
Local Authority Districts
Postcode (Sector)
Wards (Electoral)
Westminster Parliamentary Constituencies
Observation units: Individuals
Kind of data: Numeric data
Alpha/numeric data
Universe: National
Adults
Adults (18 and over) living in private households in Great Britain (excluding the 'crofting counties' north of the Caledonian Canal).

Time dimensions: Repeated cross-sectional study
The BSA survey is conducted annually.
Sampling procedures: Multi-stage stratified random sample
See documentation for each BSA year for full details.
Number of units: (B) 3146 (obtained) Weighted sample size
Method of data collection: Face-to-face interview; Self-completion
The interview is conducted by Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI).
Weighting: No information recorded

Thesaurus search on keywords

View keywords... Hide keywords...
ABORTIONACCESS TO COUNTRYSIDEADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE
ADOLESCENTSADVICEAGE
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENTAGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIONAIR POLLUTION
AMBULANCE SERVICESAPARTMENTSASIANS
ASSAULTASSOCIATIONSATTITUDES
BLACK PEOPLEBRITISH POLITICAL PARTIESBUILDING MAINTENANCE
BURGLARYBUSESCAR PARKING AREAS
CARE OF DEPENDANTSCENSORSHIPCENTRAL GOVERNMENT
CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONSCHEMICALSCHILD CARE
CHILDRENCHRONIC ILLNESSCITIZENSHIP SKILLS
CLASS SIZECOHABITATIONCOLLECTIVE BARGAINING
COMMUNITIESCOMMUNITY BEHAVIOURCOMMUNITY SAFETY
COMPANIESCOMPANY CARSCOSTS
COUNCIL TAXCOUNCILLORSCOUNTRYSIDE CONSERVATION
COUNTRYSIDECRIMINAL DAMAGECULTURAL IDENTITY
CURRENCIESCYCLE LANESDEATH PENALTY
DEBILITATIVE ILLNESSDECENTRALIZED GOVERNMENTDECISION MAKING
DENTAL TREATMENTDEVELOPMENT PLANNINGDISABILITIES
DISABLED FACILITIESDISABLED PERSONSDISEASES
DOMESTIC RESPONSIBILITIESDRIVINGDRUG TRAFFICKING
ECONOMIC ACTIVITYECONOMIC CONDITIONSEDUCATION
EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATIONEDUCATIONAL BACKGROUNDEDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURE
EDUCATIONAL RESOURCESEDUCATIONAL STANDARDSEDUCATIONAL TESTS
ELECTIONSEMPLOYEESEMPLOYERS
EMPLOYMENT HISTORYEMPLOYMENT POLICYEMPLOYMENT PROGRAMMES
EMPLOYMENTENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATIONENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENTS
EQUAL OPPORTUNITYEQUALITY BEFORE THE LAWEQUESTRIAN SPORTS
ETHNIC CONFLICTEUROPEAN UNIONEXPOSURE TO NOISE
FAMILIESFAMILY LIFEFAMILY MEMBERS
FAMILY ROLESFATHERSFINANCIAL EXPECTATIONS
FINANCIAL RESOURCESFINANCIAL SUPPORTFOOTPATHS
FORESTSFRAUDFREEDOM OF SPEECH
FRINGE BENEFITSFULL-TIME EMPLOYMENTFURTHER EDUCATION
GENDERGENERAL PRACTITIONERSGENETIC ENGINEERING
GENETIC SCREENINGGENETICSGOVERNING BOARDS (EDUCATION)
GOVERNMENT MINISTERSGRANDCHILDRENGRANDPARENTS
GREAT BRITAINGREEN BELT AREASGREENHOUSE EFFECT
HAPPINESSHEALTH SERVICESHEALTH
HEALTH-RELATED BIOTECHNOLOGYHEIGHT (PHYSIOLOGY)HIGHER EDUCATION
HOLIDAYSHOME HELPHOME OWNERSHIP
HOME SELLINGHOMOSEXUALITYHOSPITAL DISCHARGES
HOSPITAL OUTPATIENT SERVICESHOSPITAL SERVICESHOSPITAL WAITING LISTS
HOURS OF WORKHOUSEHOLDSHOUSES
HOUSEWORKHOUSING CONDITIONSHOUSING SHORTAGES
HOUSING TENUREHOUSINGHUMAN GENETICS
HUNTINGIMMORTALITYINCOME DISTRIBUTION
INCOMEINDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENTINDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
INDUSTRIESINFIDELITYINFORMAL ECONOMY
INSURANCEINTELLECTUAL IMPAIRMENTINTELLIGENCE
INTERPERSONAL CONFLICTINTERPERSONAL RELATIONSJOB CHARACTERISTICS
JOB HUNTINGJOB SATISFACTIONJOB SECURITY
JOURNALISTSJUDGMENTS (LAW)JURIES
LABOUR LAWLABOUR MARKETLABOUR MIGRATION
LABOUR RELATIONSLAND OWNERSHIPLANDLORDS
LAW ENFORCEMENTLAWFUL OPPOSITIONLEGISLATION
LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIESLOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICESLOCAL GOVERNMENT
LONG TERM IMPRISONMENTLOW PAYMANAGERS
MARITAL STATUSMEDICAL CAREMEDICAL INSURANCE
MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENTMEMBERSHIPMINIMUM WAGES
MONARCHYMONUMENTSMORAL BEHAVIOUR
MOTHERSMOTOR VEHICLESNATIONAL ECONOMY
NATIONAL IDENTITYNATURAL ENVIRONMENTNEIGHBOURS
NEWSPAPER READERSHIPNEWSPAPERSNORTHERN IRELAND
NURSESOBESITYOCCUPATIONAL PENSIONS
OCCUPATIONAL QUALIFICATIONSOCCUPATIONAL STATUSOCCUPATIONAL TRAINING
OCCUPATIONSONE-PARENT FAMILIESORGANIZATIONS
PARENT RESPONSIBILITYPARENTSPARENT-SCHOOL RELATIONSHIP
PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONSPARTNERSHIPS (BUSINESS)PARTNERSHIPS (PERSONAL)
PART-TIME EMPLOYMENTPATIENTSPERSONAL APPEARANCE
PERSONAL CONTACTPESTICIDESPETROL
PHYSICAL DISABILITIESPHYSICIANSPOLICE CORRUPTION
POLITICAL ALLEGIANCEPOLITICAL ATTITUDESPOLITICAL INTEREST
POLITICAL POWERPOLITICAL SOCIETIESPOLITICAL SYSTEMS
POLITICIANSPOVERTYPRAYER
PREGNANCYPREJUDICEPREMARITAL SEX
PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATIONPRICESPRIMARY EDUCATION
PRIVATE EDUCATIONPRIVATE PERSONAL PENSIONSPRIVATE SECTOR
PRIVATIZATIONPROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATIONPUBLIC ENTERPRISES
PUBLIC EXPENDITUREPUBLIC OWNERSHIPPUBLIC SECTOR
PUBLIC TRANSPORTQUALIFICATIONSRACIAL DISCRIMINATION
RACIAL PREJUDICERAILWAY TRANSPORTREDUNDANCY
REFUSERELIGIONRELIGIOUS AFFILIATION
RELIGIOUS ATTENDANCERELIGIOUS COMMUNITIESRELIGIOUS DOCTRINES
RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCERELIGIOUS LEADERSRELIGIOUS PRACTICE
RENTED ACCOMMODATIONREPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACYREPUBLIC OF IRELAND
RESIDENTIAL MOBILITYRESPONSIBILITYRETIREMENT
RETRAININGRIGHT OF WAYROAD ENGINEERING
ROAD TOLL CHARGESROAD TRAFFICROOMS
RURAL AREASSAVINGSSCHOOL DISCIPLINE
SCHOOLSSCHOOLTEACHERSSCIENCE
SCIENTISTSSCRIPTURESSECONDARY EDUCATION
SECONDARY SCHOOLSSELECTIVE SCHOOLSSELF-EMPLOYED
SEXUAL BEHAVIOURSHARESSHOPPING AREAS
SMOKINGSOCIAL ACTIVITIES (LEISURE)SOCIAL ATTITUDES
SOCIAL HOUSINGSOCIAL ISSUESSOCIAL PROTEST
SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITSSOCIAL SUPPORTSOCIAL WELFARE PHILOSOPHY
SOCIAL WELFARESOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUSSPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION
SPORTS CLUBSSPOUSE'S ECONOMIC ACTIVITYSPOUSE'S EMPLOYMENT
SPOUSE'S OCCUPATIONSPOUSE'S OCCUPATIONAL STATUSSPOUSES
STATE CONTROLSTATE RESPONSIBILITYSTATE RETIREMENT PENSIONS
STUDENTSSUBURBSSUPERVISORS
SURGERYTAXATIONTELEVISION NEWS
TELEVISION VIEWINGTENANTS' HOME PURCHASINGTERMINATION OF SERVICE
THEFTTOURISMTRADE UNION MEMBERSHIP
TRADE UNIONSTRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO WORKTRAVEL
TRUSTUNEMPLOYEDUNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS
UNEMPLOYMENTUNITED KINGDOMUNIVERSITIES
UPPER HOUSEURBAN AREASVAGRANTS
VISITS (PERSONAL)VISITS TO RECREATIONAL FACILITIESVOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS
VOLUNTARY WORKVOTING BEHAVIOURVOTING
WAGESWALKINGWASTE COLLECTION
WASTE LANDSWATER POLLUTIONWATER RECREATIONAL AREAS
WEALTHY PERSONSWORK ATTITUDEWORKERS PARTICIPATION
WORKING MOTHERS

Administrative and access information

Date of release:
First edition: 08 June 2000
Copyright: Copyright National Centre for Social Research
Access conditions: The depositor has specified that registration is required and standard conditions of use apply. The depositor may be informed about usage.
Additional special conditions of use also apply. See terms and conditions for further information.
Availability: UK Data Service
Contact: Get in touch

Documentation

Title File Name Size (KB)
Unclassified 4131userguide1.pdf 569
Unclassified 4131userguide2.pdf 1289
Unclassified 4131userguide3.pdf 4429
Unclassified 4131userguide4.pdf 9301
Unclassified 4131userguide5.pdf 3187
Index file for study 4131 in4131.pdf 18
Study information and citation UKDA_Study_4131_Information.htm 7
READ File read4131.txt 4
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Publications

View publications... Hide publications...

By principal investigator(s):
Links to publications may be found on the NatCen Social Research British Social Attitudes web page.

Social and Community Planning Research (1983-1988) British Social Attitudes technical report, London: SCPR, annual.

Social and Community Planning Research (1989-1995) British Social Attitudes and Northern Ireland Social Attitudes: technical report, London: SCPR.

McGrath, K. and Waterton, J. (1986) British Social Attitudes: 1983-1986 panel survey technical report, London: SCPR.

Brook, L. et al. (compilers) (1992) British Social Attitudes cumulative sourcebook: the first six surveys, Aldershot: Gower. ISBN 0566058294.

Social and Community Planning Research (1996) British Social Attitudes, Young People's Social Attitudes and Northern Ireland Social Attitudes: technical report, London: SCPR.

Social and Community Planning Research (1997) British Social Attitudes and Northern Ireland Social Attitudes: 1995 surveys: technical report, London: SCPR.

Lilley, S. et al. (1998) British Social Attitudes and Northern Ireland Social Attitudes: 1996 surveys: technical report, London: SCPR.

Bromley, C. et al. (1999) British Social Attitudes 1997 survey: technical report, London: National Centre for Social Research.

Thomson, K. et al. (2001) British Social Attitudes 1999 survey: technical report, London: National Centre for Social Research.

Jowell, R. and Airey, C. (eds.) (1984) British Social Attitudes: the 1984 report, Aldershot: Gower. ISBN 0566007371.

Jowell, R. and Witherspoon, S. (eds.) (1985) British Social Attitudes: the 1985 report, Aldershot: Gower. ISBN 0566007517.

Jowell, R. Witherspoon, S. and Brook, L. (eds.) (1986) British Social Attitudes: the 1986 report, Aldershot: Gower. ISBN 0566007525.

Jowell, R. Witherspoon, S. and Brook, L. (eds.) (1987) British Social Attitudes: the 1987 report, Aldershot: Gower. ISBN 0566007533.

Jowell, R., Witherspoon, S. and Brook, L. (eds.) (1988) British Social Attitudes: the 5th report, Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing. ISBN 0566057719.

Jowell, R., Witherspoon, S. and Brook, L. (eds.) (1990) British Social Attitudes: the 7th report, Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing. ISBN 0566058405.

Jowell, R., Brook, L. and Taylor, B. (eds.) (1991) British Social Attitudes: the 8th report, Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing. ISBN 1855212587.

Jowell, R. et al. (eds.) (1994) British Social Attitudes: the 11th report, Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing. ISBN 1855216124.

Jowell, R. et al. (eds.) (1995) British Social Attitudes: the 12th report, Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing.

Jowell, R. et al. (eds.) (1996) British Social Attitudes: the 13th report, Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing. ISBN 1855216078.

Jowell, R. et al. (eds.) (1997) British Social Attitudes: the 14th report: the end of conservative values, Aldershot: Ashgate.

Jowell, R. et al. (eds.) (1998) British - and European - Social Attitudes: the 15th report - how Britain differs, Aldershot: Ashgate.

Jowell, R. et al. (eds.) (1999) British Social Attitudes: the 16th report: who shares New Labour values?, Aldershot: Ashgate.

Jowell, R. et al. (eds.) (2000) British Social Attitudes: the 17th report - focusing on diversity, London: Sage.

Park, A. et al. (eds.) British Social Attitudes: the 18th report: public policy, social ties, London: Sage.

Brook, L. (1998) 'What drives support for higher public spending' in P.F. Taylor-Gooby (ed) Choice and Public Policy, London: Macmillan.

Bryson, C. and Jarvis, L. (2000) Trends in attitudes to health care 1983-1998: report based on results from the British Social Attitudes surveys, London: National Centre for Social Research. ISBN 0904607550.

Park, A. et al. (eds.) (2004) British Social Attitudes: the 21st report, London: Sage.

Park, A. et al. (eds.) (2005) British Social Attitudes: the 23rd report, London: Sage.

Park, A. et al. (eds.) (2007) British Social Attitudes: the 24th report, London: Sage.

Park, A. et al. (eds.) (2009) British Social Attitudes: the 25th report, London: Sage.

Park, A. et al. (eds.) (2010) British Social Attitudes: the 26th report, London: Sage.

Park, A. et al. (eds.) (2010) British Social Attitudes: the 27th report, London: Sage.

Park, A., Clery, E , Curtice, J., Phillips, M and Utting, D. (eds.) (2011) British Social Attitudes: the 28th report, London: Sage. Retrieved February 16th, 2011 from http://www.natcen.ac.uk/study/british-social-attitudes-28th-report

Park, A., Clery, E., Curtice, J., Phillips, M. and Utting, D. (eds.) (2012) British Social Attitudes: the 29th Report, London: NatCen Social Research. Retrieved March 11th, 2013 from http://www.natcen.ac.uk/bsa29

Park, A., Bryson, C., Clery, E., Curtice, J. and Phillips, M. (eds.) (2013) British Social Attitudes: the 30th Report, London: NatCen Social Research, ISBN 978-1-907236-28-0. Retrieved April 2nd, 2014 from http://bsa-30.natcen.ac.uk/

Park, A., Curtice, J. and Bryson, C. (eds.) (2014) British Social Attitudes: the 31st Report, London: NatCen Social Research. Retrieved from http://bsa-31.natcen.ac.uk/

Park, A., Curtice, J. and Bryson, C. (eds.) (2015) British Social Attitudes: the 32nd Report, London: NatCen Social Research. Retrieved from http://bsa.natcen.ac.uk/

Resulting from secondary analysis:
Taylor-Gooby, P. (1987) `Welfare attitudes: cleavage, consensus and citizenship', The Quarterly Journal of Social Affairs, 3(3), pp.199-211.

Taylor-Gooby, P. (1988) `The future of the British welfare state: public attitudes, citizenship and social policy under the Conservative governments of the 1980s', European Sociological Review, 4(1), pp.1-19.

Taylor-Gooby, P. (1989) `The politics of welfare privatization: the British experience', International Journal of Health Services, 19(2), pp.209-220.

Sabucedo, J. M. and Cramer, D. (1990) `Sociological and psychological predictors of voting in Great Britain', The Journal of Social Psychology, 131(5), pp.647-654.

Blanchflower, D.G. and Oswald, A.J. (1991) What makes an entrepreneur?, Applied Economics Discussion Paper Series No. 125, October.

Blanchflower, D.G. and Oswald, A.J. (1992) Does access to capital help make an entrepreneur?, NBER Working Paper No. 3252 (rev. version), July.

Blanchflower, D.G. and Oswald, A.J. (1992) `The wage curve', Scandinavian Journal of Economics 92 (2), pp. 215-253.

Blanchflower, D.G. and Freeman, R.B. (1992) `Unionism in the United States and other advanced OECD countries', Industrial Relations 31 (1), pp. 56-79.

Blanchflower, D.G. and Oswald, A.J. (1989) `International patterns of work' IN R. Jowell and S. Witherspoon (eds.) British social attitudes: international comparisons, Gower Press.

Blanchflower, D.G. and Freeman, R.B. (1993) Did the Thatcher reforms change British labour performance?, NBER Working Paper Series No. 4384, June.

Blanchflower, D.G. (1991) `Fear, unemployment and pay', The Economic Journal 101, May, pp.483-496.

Bartholomew, D.J., de Menezes, L.M. and Tzamourani, P. Latent variable models: an empirical study, paper presented at IPN Symposium - Applications of Latent Trait and Latent Class Models in the Social Sciences - Akademie Sankelmark, Germany, May 1994.

Blanchflower, D.G. and Oswald, A.J. (1994) What makes an entrepreneur?, NBER Working Paper No. 3252 (rev. version), July.

Askham, J., Hancock, R. and Hills, J. (1995) Opinions on pensions: older people's attitudes to incomes, taxes and benefits, London: Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, King's College London, September.

Hancock, R., Jarvis, C. and Mueller, G. (1995) The outlook for incomes in retirement: social trends and attitudes, Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, King's College London, December.

Doling, J. and Ford, J. (1996) `The new homeownership : the impact of the labour market developments on attitudes toward owning your own home', Environment and Planning A vol. 28, pp. 157-72.

Besley, T., Hall, J., and Preston, I. (1996) The demand for private health insurance: do waiting lists matter? Working Paper No. W96/7, May, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Shapiro, R. et al.(1996) Public opinion toward unemployment, work and well-being (report prepared for the International Labour Office), Columbia University, USA.

Besley, T., Hall, J. and Preston, I. (1996) Private health insurance and the state of the NHS, IFS Commentary No. 52, Institute for Fiscal Studies. ISBN 1-873357-52-4.

Jarvis, C. et al. (1996) Getting around after 60: a profile of Britain's older population, Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, King's College London: HMSO. ISBN 0-11-321966-0.

Brook, L., Hall, J. and Preston, I. (1997) What drives support for higher public spending?, IFS Working Paper W97/16, Institute for Fiscal Studies, June.

Jarvis, C., and Hancock, R. (1997) `Trends in volunteering and implications for the future' IN C.Pharaoh (ed.) Dimensions of the voluntary sector: key facts and figures, analysis and trends, King's Hill, West Malling, Kent: Charities Aid Foundation. ISBN 1-85934-035-0.

Hall, J. and Preston, I. (1998) Public and private choice in UK health insurance, IFS Working Paper No. W98/19, Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Burchardt, T., Hills, J. and Propper, C. (1999) Private welfare and public policy, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. ISBN 1-902633-00-8.

Charlwood, A. (2001) Why do non-union employees want to unionise? Evidence from Britain, Discussion Paper 498, Leverhulme Trust.

Charlwood, A. (2001) Influences on trade union organising effectiveness in Great Britain, Discussion Paper 504, Leverhulme Trust.

Hedges, A. (2005) Perceptions of redistribution: report on exploratory qualitative research, CASEpaper 96, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics, March.

Steven, M. (2010) Christianity and party politics: keeping the faith, London: Routledge, December. ISBN 978-0-415-55660-6.

Coleman, N; Sykes, W. and Groom, C. (2013) Barriers to employment and unfair treatment at work: a quantitative analysis of disabled people's experiences, Research Report no.88, Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission. Retrieved February 26, 2014 from http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/barriers_and_unfair_treatment_final.pdf

Walker, J. (2014) Testing fresh expressions: identity and transformation, Farnham: Ashgate. ISBN: 978-1-4724-1184-6.

Simister, J. and Holmes, H.L. (2015) 'Discrimination against ethnic minorities in Britain: why did racial discrimination increase from 2010 to 2015?', SSRG International Journal of Economics and Management Studies (SSRG-IJEMS), 2(2). Retrieved April 15, 2015 from http://www.internationaljournalssrg.org/IJEMS/2015/Volume2-Issue2/IJEMS-V2I2P104.pdf

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