UK Data Service data catalogue record for:

Ethnic Minority Psychiatric Illness Rates in the Community, 2000

Title details

SN: 4685
Title: Ethnic Minority Psychiatric Illness Rates in the Community, 2000
Alternative title: EMPIRIC; Study of Health and Wellbeing, 2000
Persistent identifier: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-4685-1
Depositor: National Centre for Social Research
Principal investigator(s): National Centre for Social Research
University College London. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
Sponsor(s): Department of Health
Other acknowledgements: P1983
Contributed to design and analysis:
Royal Free and University College Medical School: James Nazroo and Saffron Karlsen (Department of Epidemiology and Public Health), Scott Weich, Martin Blanchard and Michael King (Department of Psychiatry & Behavioural Sciences).
Steve Fenton, Professor of Sociology, University of Bristol;
Keith Lloyd, University of Exeter;
Stephen Stansfeld, Queen Mary and Westfield College;
Mike Crawford and Peter Tyrer, Imperial College School of Science, Technology and Medicine;
Kerry Sproston and Sally McManus, National Centre for Social Research.


The citation for this study is:

National Centre for Social Research, University College London. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health. (2003). Ethnic Minority Psychiatric Illness Rates in the Community, 2000. [data collection]. UK Data Service. SN: 4685,

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Subject Categories

Ethnic minorities - Social stratification and groupings
Mental health - Health
Morbidity and mortality - Population, vital statistics and censuses


Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.

The overall aim of the Ethnic Minority Psychiatric Illness Rates in the Community (EMPIRIC) survey was to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, as measured by standard screening instruments, among minority ethnic populations resident in England, and to compare prevalence rates between groups. Also, the survey aimed to examine use of related services and to examine key factors that may be associated with mental disorder, and ethnic differences in the risk of its contraction.

The sample for the survey was drawn from Black Caribbean, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Irish respondents to the Health Survey for England (HSE) of 1999 (held at the UK Data Archive under SN 4365), which had focused on minority ethnic groups. White adults selected from respondents to the HSE of 1998 (held under SN 4150) were also included in the sample.

In addition to the quantitative survey, which included 4281 respondents, the EMPIRIC study also included a qualitative element. Interviews were achieved with 117 informants, purposively selected from quantitative survey respondents from within each ethnic group, according to CIS-R score. The intention was to investigate the cross-cultural validity of the standard screening instruments, which were designed and validated in a Western context. By encouraging informants to use their own words, the qualitative study explored the terms and definitions that they used to describe mental health. Users should note that only the data from the quantitative survey are currently held at the Archive.

Main Topics:
For the most part, the questions were taken from existing instruments, as outlined below:
Use of health services and the Short Explanatory Model Interview (Lloyd et al, 1998). Explanatory models (EMs) denote the 'notions about an episode of sickness and its treatment that are employed by all those engaged in the clinical process'. They contribute to the research of respondents' own perspectives of illness and elicit local cultural perspectives of the sickness episode;
Close persons questionnaire - to measure social support - taken from Whitehall II Study of British Civil Servants;
Social networks - questions derived from the Alameda County Study;
Questions on carers - taken from the General Household Survey (see GN 33090);
Control at home and work - taken from Whitehall II Study of British Civil Servants;
Chronic strains - questions on problems with relatives, with financial problems over providing necessities and payment of bills, housing problems, and difficulties in the local neighbourhood - taken from the Whitehall II Study of British Civil Servants;
Discrimination/harassment - taken from the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities (see SN 3685);
Short Form 12 (SF12) Physical and Mental Health Summary Scales;
Clinical Interview Schedule - Revised (CIS-R);
Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) - used to assess psychotic symptoms;
Social Functioning questionnaire (SFQ);
Language and ethnic identity - adapted from the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities (see SN 3685).
Full references for each of these sources are listed in the study documentation.

Coverage, universe, methodology

Dates of fieldwork: 2000
Country: England
Spatial units: Standard Statistical Regions
Observation units: Individuals
Kind of data: Numeric data
Individual (micro) level
Universe: National
Adults in England aged 16-74 years, belonging to Black Caribbean, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi or Irish ethnic groups, who had been respondents to HSE 1999, and had agreed to be re-contacted. White adults aged 16-74 years, selected from HSE 1998 respondents who agreed to be re-contacted were also included in the sample. All interviews were conducted during the year 2000.
Time dimensions: Cross-sectional (one-time) study
Sampling procedures: Multi-stage stratified random sample
please see documentation for full details of sampling. Details of original ethnic minority sampling for HSE 1999 are contained in Chapter 14 of the following report:
Erens, B., Primatesta, P. and Prior G., (2001) Health Survey for England 1999: the health of minority ethnic groups, London: The Stationery Office.
Number of units: 6,271 (target) 4,281 (obtained);Please see documentation for details of weighting.
Method of data collection: Face-to-face interview; Psychological measurements
Weighting: No information recorded

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Administrative and access information

Date of release:
First edition: 18 June 2003
Copyright: Crown Copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland
Access conditions: The depositor has specified that registration is required and standard conditions of use apply. The depositor may be informed about usage. See terms and conditions of access for further information.
Availability: UK Data Service
Contact: Get in touch


Title File Name Size (KB)
User Guide 4685userguide.pdf 260
Study information and citation UKDA_Study_4685_Information.htm 23
READ File read4685.txt 8
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By principal investigator(s):
Sproston, K. and Nazroo, J. (2002) Ethnic Minority Psychiatric Illness Rates in the Community (EMPIRIC), London: The Stationery Office.

O'Connor, W. and Nazroo, J. (eds.) (2002) Ethnic differences in the context and experience of psychiatric illness: a qualitative study, London: The Stationery Office.

Resulting from secondary analysis:


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Factor Analysis of Close Persons' Questionnaire Stata 23 Feb 2017 Dharmi Kapadia

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