Catalogue

UK Data Service data catalogue record for:

National Child Development Study: Sweep 4, 1981, and Public Examination Results, 1978

Title details

SN: 5566
Title: National Child Development Study: Sweep 4, 1981, and Public Examination Results, 1978
Alternative title: NCDS4
Persistent identifier: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-5566-1
Series: National Child Development Study [National Child Development Study, 1958-]
Depositor: University of London. Institute of Education. Centre for Longitudinal Studies
Principal investigator(s): University of London. Institute of Education. Centre for Longitudinal Studies
Data collector(s): NOP Market Research Limited
Social and Community Planning Research
Original data producer(s): National Children's Bureau
Sponsor(s): Department of Health and Social Security
Department of Education and Science
Department of Employment
Department of the Environment
Manpower Services Commission

Citation

The citation for this study is:

University of London. Institute of Education. Centre for Longitudinal Studies. (2008). National Child Development Study: Sweep 4, 1981, and Public Examination Results, 1978. [data collection]. 2nd Edition. National Children's Bureau, [original data producer(s)]. UK Data Service. SN: 5566, http://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-5566-1

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Subject Categories

Child development and child rearing - Social stratification and groupings
Family life and marriage - Social stratification and groupings
General - Education
General - Employment and labour
General - Health
Social attitudes and behaviour - Society and culture
Youth - Social stratification and groupings

Abstract

Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.

The National Child Development Study (NCDS) originated in the Perinatal Mortality Survey (see SN 5565), which examined social and obstetric factors associated with still birth and infant mortality among over 17,000 babies born in Britain in one week in March 1958. Surviving members of this birth cohort have been surveyed on eight further occasions in order to monitor their changing health, education, social and economic circumstances - in 1965 at age 7, 1969 at age 11, 1974 at age 16 (the first three sweeps are also held under SN 5565), 1981 (age 23 - SN 5566), 1991 (age 33 - SN 5567), 1999/2000 (age 41/2 - SN 5578), 2004-2005 (age 46/47 - SN 5579), 2008-2009 (age 50 - SN 6137) and 2013 (age 55 - SN 7669).

There have also been surveys of sub-samples of the cohort, the most recent occurring in 1995 (age 37), when a 10% representative sub-sample was assessed for difficulties with basic skills (SN 4992). Finally, during 2002-2004, 9,340 NCDS cohort members participated in a bio-medical survey, carried out by qualified nurses (SN 5594, available under more restrictive Special Licence access conditions; see catalogue record for details). The bio-medical survey did not cover any of the topics included in the 2004/2005 survey. Further NCDS data separate to the main surveys include a response and deaths dataset, parent migration studies, employment, activity and partnership histories, behavioural studies and essays - see the NCDS series page for details.

Further information about the NCDS can be found on the Centre for Longitudinal Studies website.

How to access genetic and/or bio-medical sample data from a range of longitudinal surveys:
A useful overview of the governance routes for applying for genetic and bio-medical sample data, which are not available through the UK Data Service, can be found at Governance of data and sample access on the METADAC (Managing Ethico-social, Technical and Administrative issues in Data Access) website.

NCDS4:
The NCDS4 follow-up, conducted in 1981, differs from previous sweeps in that information was obtained from the subject (who was interviewed by a professional survey research interviewer) and also from the 1971 and 1981 Censuses (variables describing area of residence were used). This dataset also includes public examination results for the respondents, obtained from schools study members were known to attend at the time of the NCDS3 follow-up in 1974. Schools were asked to provide details of all Certificate of Secondary Education, General Certificate of Education, and in Scotland, Scottish Certificate of Education examinations entered up to 1978. They were also asked to indicate where the individual was known to have moved on to another establishment (another school, sixth-form college, further education college etc.) and might have taken other examinations. In such cases those other institutions were also contacted and relevant results obtained.

The Centre for Longitudinal Studies updated the first six waves of NCDS in late 2006. Improvements made include further data cleaning and the addition of new documentation.

For the second edition (August 2008), the serial number has been replaced with a new one, variable Ncdsid. This change has been made for all datasets in the NCDS series. Further information may be found in the 'CLS Confidentiality and Data Security Review', included in the documentation.

Main Topics:
The fourth NCDS sweep, carried out when the cohort members were aged 23, covered the following topics: employment, unemployment and periods out of the labour force; participation in government special schemes; apprenticeship and training; post-school education; marriage, cohabitation and children; housing and household details; family income, savings and investment; respondent-reported health state and health-related behaviour; voluntary activity and leisure; malaise inventory (a 24-item inventory completed by the respondents at the completion of the interview. This is a measure indicating a tendency towards non-clinical depression developed by the Institute of Psychiatry from the Cornell Medical Index (Rutter and others, 1970)). In addition, area data, based on the Small Area Statistics (SAS) of both the 1971 and 1981 Censuses, were obtained which summarise the characteristics of the area in which each cohort member was living at the time of both the 1974 and 1981 surveys.

Public Examination Results 1978:
These data cover examination results supplied by schools, for examinations respondents had taken up to 1978. See documentation for further details.

Coverage, universe, methodology

Dates of fieldwork: August 1981 - March 1982
Country: Great Britain
Spatial units: Standard Statistical Regions
Observation units: Individuals
Families/households
Kind of data: Numeric data
Individual (micro) level
Universe: National
Adults in Great Britain born in one particular week in 1958 (NCDS respondents were aged 23 at the time of NCDS4).
Time dimensions: Longitudinal/panel/cohort
Sampling procedures: No sampling (total universe)
See documentation for further details.
Number of units: NCDS4: 12,537 cases. Examination results: 14,331 cases.
Method of data collection: Face-to-face interview; Self-completion; Educational measurements
Weighting: No weighting used.

Thesaurus search on keywords

View keywords... Hide keywords...
ABILITY GROUPINGACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTACCIDENTS
ADVANCED LEVEL EXAMINATIONSAGEALCOHOL USE
ALCOHOLIC DRINKSALCOHOLISMALLERGIES
ANTENATAL CAREANXIETYAPARTMENTS
APPRENTICESHIPARITHMETICASSETS
ASTHMAATTITUDESBACTERIAL AND VIRUS DISEASES
BATHROOMSBEDROOMSBEHAVIOURAL DISORDERS
BIRTH ORDERBIRTH WEIGHTBREAST-FEEDING
BRONCHITISBUSINESSESCAESARIAN SECTIONS
CANCERCARDIOVASCULAR DISEASESCARE OF DEPENDANTS
CAREER DEVELOPMENTCAREERS GUIDANCECERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
CHILD BENEFITSCHILDBIRTHCHILDREN IN CARE
CHILDRENCHRONIC ILLNESSCIVIC EDUCATION
COHABITATIONCOMMUNICATION SKILLSCREATIVITY
DAY RELEASE COURSESDEBILITATIVE ILLNESSDELIVERY (PREGNANCY)
DEPRESSIONDIABETESDIGESTIVE SYSTEM DISORDERS
DISABILITIESDISABLED PERSONSDISEASES
DISMISSALDOMESTIC RESPONSIBILITIESDRINKING BEHAVIOUR
DRUG ABUSEEATING DISORDERSECONOMIC ACTIVITY
ECONOMIC VALUEEDUCATIONEDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
EDUCATIONAL COURSESEDUCATIONAL FACILITIESEDUCATIONAL FEES
EDUCATIONAL GRANTSEDUCATIONAL RECORDSEDUCATIONAL TESTS
ELECTIONSEMOTIONAL DISTURBANCESEMPLOYEES
EMPLOYMENT HISTORYEMPLOYMENT PROGRAMMESEMPLOYMENT
ENDOCRINE DISORDERSENGLISH (LANGUAGE)ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION
EPILEPSYEQUAL OPPORTUNITYEQUAL RIGHTS OF MEN AND WOMEN
ETHNIC GROUPSEXAMINATIONSEXPECTATION
EXTERNAL EXAMINATIONSFAMILIESFAMILY ENVIRONMENT
FAMILY LIFEFAMILY MEMBERSFATHER'S ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
FATHER'S EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUNDFATHER'S OCCUPATIONFATHER'S OCCUPATIONAL STATUS
FATHERSFERTILITYFIELDS OF STUDY
FINANCIAL RESOURCESFINANCIAL SUPPORTFOREIGN LANGUAGES AND CULTURES EDUCATION
FULL-TIME EMPLOYMENTFURTHER EDUCATIONGENDER
GENERAL PRACTITIONERSGIFTSGREAT BRITAIN
HAEMATOLOGIC DISEASESHAPPINESSHEADS OF HOUSEHOLD
HEALTH ADVICEHEALTH CONSULTATIONSHEALTH SERVICES
HEALTHHEART DISEASESHEATING SYSTEMS
HEIGHT (PHYSIOLOGY)HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONSHIGHER EDUCATION
HOBBIESHOME BUYINGHOME OWNERSHIP
HOME SHARINGHOME-BASED WORKHOMELESSNESS
HOSPITAL SERVICESHOSPITALIZATIONHOURS OF WORK
HOUSEHOLD BUDGETSHOUSEHOLDSHOUSING CONDITIONS
HOUSING FACILITIESHOUSING FINANCEHOUSING TENURE
HOUSINGINCOMEINDUSTRIES
INFANT MORTALITYINFORMATION SOURCESINHERITANCE
INJURIESINTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTINVESTMENT
JOB CHANGINGJOB DESCRIPTIONJOB HUNTING
JOB SATISFACTIONJOB SECURITYJOB VACANCIES
KITCHENSKNOWLEDGE (AWARENESS)LABOUR COMPLICATIONS
LABOUR MIGRATIONLANDLORDSLAVATORIES
LEAVING HOME (YOUTH)LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIESLIFE STYLES
LITERACYLOANSMARITAL HISTORY
MARITAL STATUSMARRIAGEMATERNITY SERVICES
MATHEMATICS EDUCATIONMATHEMATICSMEDICAL CARE
MEDICAL EXAMINATIONSMEDICAL HISTORYMENTAL DISORDERS
MIGRAINESMISCARRIAGEMORTGAGES
MOTHER'S OCCUPATIONAL STATUSMOTHER'S PLACE OF BIRTHMOTHERS
MULTIPLE BIRTHSMUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASESNEONATAL DEATHS
NERVOUS BREAKDOWNNERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASESNUMERACY
OCCUPATIONAL QUALIFICATIONSOCCUPATIONAL TRAININGOCCUPATIONS
ONE-PARENT FAMILIESORDINARY LEVEL EXAMINATIONSPARENTAL ROLE
PARENTSPART-TIME COURSESPART-TIME EMPLOYMENT
PATIENTSPEER-GROUP RELATIONSHIPSPHYSICAL ACTIVITIES
PHYSICAL DISABILITIESPHYSICALLY DISABLED PERSONSPOLITICAL ALLEGIANCE
POLITICAL INTERESTPOLITICAL PARTICIPATIONPREGNANCY
PREMATURE BIRTHSPRIVATE SECTORPROMOTION (JOB)
PSYCHIATRYPSYCHOTHERAPYPUBLIC ENTERPRISES
PUBLIC SECTORQUALIFICATIONSQUALITY OF LIFE
RACIAL DISCRIMINATIONRATESREADING (ACTIVITY)
READING INSTRUCTIONREADING SKILLSREADING TESTS
RECRUITMENTREDUNDANCYRELIGIOUS AFFILIATION
RELIGIOUS ATTENDANCERENT REBATESRENTED ACCOMMODATION
RENTSRESIDENTIAL CHILD CARERESIDENTIAL MOBILITY
RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASESROOM SHARINGROOMS
SATISFACTIONSAVINGSSCHOOL-LEAVING AGE
SCHOOL-LEAVINGSCHOOLSSCHOOL-STUDENT RELATIONSHIP
SCOTTISH CERTIFICATE OF EDUCATIONSEIZURESSELF-EMPLOYED
SELF-ESTEEMSENSORY IMPAIRMENTSSEX DISCRIMINATION
SEXUAL BEHAVIOURSHELTERED EMPLOYMENTSHIFT WORK
SICK LEAVESIGHTSKIN DISEASES
SMALL BUSINESSESSMOKING CESSATIONSMOKING
SOCIAL ACTIVITIES (LEISURE)SOCIAL CLASSSOCIAL HOUSING
SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITSSOCIAL SECURITY CONTRIBUTIONSSOCIAL SERVICES
SOCIAL SKILLSSOCIAL SUPPORTSOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATIONSPECTACLESSPEECH IMPAIRMENTS
SPELLING SKILLSSPORTSPOUSE'S ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
SPOUSE'S EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUNDSPOUSE'S EMPLOYMENTSPOUSE'S OCCUPATION
SPOUSE'S WAGESSPOUSESSTUDENTS
STUDYSUBSIDIARY EMPLOYMENTSUPERVISORS
SYMPTOMSTEMPORARY EMPLOYMENTTENANTS' HOME PURCHASING
TERMINATION OF SERVICETRADE UNION MEMBERSHIPTRADE UNIONS
TRAINING COURSESTRAININGTRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO WORK
UNEMPLOYEDUNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITSUNEMPLOYMENT
UNIVERSITIESVERBAL SKILLSVISION IMPAIRMENTS
VOCABULARY SKILLSVOCATIONAL EDUCATION CERTIFICATESVOCATIONAL EDUCATION
VOLUNTARY WELFARE ORGANIZATIONSVOLUNTARY WORKVOTING BEHAVIOUR
VOTING INTENTIONVOTINGWAGES
WATER SERVICES (BUILDINGS)WEIGHT (PHYSIOLOGY)WORK ATTITUDE
WORKING CONDITIONSWORKING MOTHERSWORKING WOMEN
WRITING SKILLSYOUTH CLUBSYOUTH ORGANIZATIONS
YOUTH

Administrative and access information

Date of release:
First edition: 25 January 2007
Latest edition: 14 August 2008 (2nd Edition)
Copyright: Copyright Centre for Longitudinal Studies
Access conditions: The depositor has specified that registration is required and standard conditions of use apply. The depositor may be informed about usage.
Additional special conditions of use also apply. See terms and conditions of access for further information.
Availability: UK Data Service
Contact: Get in touch

Documentation

Title File Name Size (KB)
A Guide to Longitudinal Linkage of NCDS Data a_guide_to_longitudinal_linkage_of_ncds_data.pdf 1147
BSAG Codings in NCDS bsag_codings_in_ncds.pdf 62
CLS Confidentiality and Data Security Review cls_confidentiality_and_data_security_review.pdf 49
NCDS4 1981: Part 1: Data Dictionary, Questionnaires and Showcards ncds4_1981_part_1_data_dictionary_questionnaires_showcards.pdf 8114
NCDS4 1981: Part 2: Open-coded Data ncds4_1981_part_2_open-coded_data.pdf 4435
NCDS4 1981: Part 3: Coding Instructions ncds4_1981_part_3_coding_instructions.pdf 4064
NCDS and BCS70 Response ncds_and_bcs70_response.pdf 737
NCDS Revised Region Variables ncds_revised_region_variables.pdf 169
NCDS User Guide 2006 ncds_user_guide_2006.pdf 156
Public Examination Results 1978 public_examination_results_1978.pdf 999
Study information and citation UKDA_Study_5566_Information.htm 7
READ File read5566.htm 11
View related studies and guides... Hide related studies and guides...

Related studies:

  Social Consequences of Unemployment, 1964-1971 (SN 1858)
  Warnock Study of Handicapped School Leavers, 1976 (SN 2024)
  National Child Development Study: Sweep 4 Feasibility Study and Tobacco Research Council Study, 1978 (SN 2025)
  National Child Development Study: Teaching Sets, 1958-1981 (SN 2364)
  National Child Development Study: Sweep 5 Parent Migration Dataset, 1991 (SN 4324)
  National Child Development Study: 37-Year Sample Survey, 1995 (SN 4992)
  National Child Development Study: Sweeps 5-6 Partnership Histories, 1974-2000 (SN 5217)
  National Child Development Study Response and Outcomes Dataset, 1958-2013 (SN 5560)
  National Child Development Study: Childhood Data, Sweeps 0-3, 1958-1974 (SN 5565)
  National Child Development Study: Sweep 5, 1991 (SN 5567)
  National Child Development Study: Sweep 6, 1999-2000 (SN 5578)
  National Child Development Study: Sweep 7, 2004-2005 (SN 5579)
  National Child Development Study: Employment Histories, 1974-2000 (SN 5600)
  National Child Development Study: Sample of Essays (Sweep 2, Age 11), 1969 (SN 5790)
  National Child Development Study: Sweep 8, 2008-2009 (SN 6137)
  Social Participation and Identity, 2007-2010 (SN 6691)
  National Child Development Study: Understanding Individual Behaviour, 2010 (SN 6752)
  National Child Development Study: Partnership Histories, 1974-2013 (SN 6940)
  National Child Development Study: Activity Histories, 1974-2013 (SN 6942)
  National Child Development Study: Sweep 8, 2008-2009: Imagine You are 60 (SN 6978)
  National Child Development Study: Sweep 9, 2013 (SN 7669)
  Perinatal Mortality Survey, 1958 (SN 2137)
  Permanent Parental Income Dataset, 1958-1974 (SN 4128)
  Multilevel Event History Analysis Training Datasets, 2003-2005 (SN 5171)
  Misreported Schooling and Returns to Education, 1958-1991 (SN 5471)
  British Cohort Studies Teaching Dataset for Higher Education, 1958-2000 (SN 5805)
  Exploring Data, Second Edition: Teaching Datasets, 1958-2005 (SN 6096)
  National Child Development Study: Sweeps 1-6, 1958-2000, Self-Reported Measures (SN 6760)
  Occupational Coding for the National Child Development Study (1969, 1991-2008) and the 1970 British Cohort Study (1980, 2000-2008) (SN 7023)

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Publications

View publications... Hide publications...

By principal investigator(s):
A searchable bibliography may be found on the Publications page of the Centre for Longitudinal Studies website.

Kallis, C. (2005) CLS Cohort Studies Data Note 5: partnership histories in NCDS5 and NCDS6, Centre for Multilevel Modelling, Bedford Group for Lifecourse and Statistical Studies, Institute of Education, University of London.

Steele, F. et al. (2005) 'The relationship between childbearing and transitions from marriage and cohabitation in Britain', Demography,42.

Steele, F. et al. (2005) 'Changes in the relationship between the outcomes of cohabiting partnerships and fertility among young British women: evidence from the 1958 and 1970 Birth Cohort Studies', paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Philadelphia, 2005.

Resulting from secondary analysis:
Shepherd, P. (1985) The National Child Development Study: an introduction to the origins of the study and the methods of data collection, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series, No. 1, October.

National Child Development Study User Support Group (1985) Publications arising from the National Child Development Study, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 2, October.

Fogelman, K. (1985) After school: the education and training experiences of the 1958 cohort, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 3, December.

Power, G. (1985) A longitudinal study of alcohol consumption amongst young adults in Britain I: alcohol consumption and associated factors in young adults in Britain, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 4, December.

Ghodsian, M. and Power, G. (1985) A longitudinal study of alcohol consumption amongst young adults in Britain II: a national longitudinal study of alcohol consumption between the ages of 16 and 23, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 5, December.

Ghodsian, M. (1985) A longitudinal study of alcohol consumption amongst young adults in Britain III: childhood and adolescent characteristics associated with drinking behaviour in early adulthood, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 6, December.

Anderson, H.R., et al. (1986) `The natural history of asthma in childhood’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 40, pp.121-129.

Blaxter, M. (1986) Report on the longitudinal exploitation of the National Child Development Study in areas of interest to the DHSS, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 7, April.

Power, C., Fogelman, K. and Fox, A.J. (1986) Health and social mobility during the early years of life, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 8, May.

Kerckhoff, A.C. (1986) Effects of ability grouping in secondary schools in Great Britain, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 9, June.

Jones, G. (1986) Leaving the parental home : an analysis of early housing careers, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 10, July.

Jones, G. (1986) Stratification in youth, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 11, July.

Power, C. and Moynihan, C. (1986) Social class changes in weight-for-height between childhood and early adulthood, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 12, July.

Hutchinson, D. (1986) Response to a national longitudinal study: policy and academic implications for the study of change, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 13, August.

Hutchinson, D. (1986) Drop out from apprenticeship: an application of survival methods to grouped data, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 14, August.

Hutchinson, D. (1986) Event history and survival analysis in the social sciences: review paper and introduction, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 15, August.

Kiernan, K. (1986) Transitions into young adulthood, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 16, October.

Shepherd, P. (1986) The NCDS5 development programme, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 17, October.

Micklewright, J. (1986) A note on household income data in NCDS 3, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 18, December.

Payne, J. (1986) Unemployment, apprenticeships and training: does it pay to stay on at school?, National Child Development Study User Support Group Working Paper Series: No. 19, December.

Strachan, D.P. et al (1988) `Asthma as a link between chest illness in childhood and chronic cough and phlegm in young adults’, British Medical Journal, 296, pp.890-893.

Strachan, D.P. `Hay fever, hygiene and household size’, British Medical Journal, 299, pp.1259-1260.

Robertson, D. and Symons, J. (1990) `The occupational choice of British children’, The Economic Journal 100, September, pp.828-841.

Strachan, D.P., Golding, J. and Anderson, H.R. (1990) `Regional variations in wheezing illness in British children: effect of migration during early childhood’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 44 (3) September, pp.231-236.

Anderson, H.R., Pottier, A.C. and Strachan, D.P. (1992) `Asthma from birth to age 23: incidence and relation to prior and concurrent atopic disease’, Thorax 47 (7) July, pp.537-542.

Blanchflower, D. and Lynch, L. (1992) Training at work: a comparison of U.S. and British youths, CEP Discussion Paper No. 78, June.

Blanchflower, D.G. and Oswald, A.J. (1992) What makes an entrepreneur? NBER Working Paper No. 3252 (rev. version), July.

Blanchflower, D.G. and Oswald, A.J. (1992) Entrepreneurship, happiness and supernormal returns: evidence from Britain and the US, NBER Working Paper Series, No. 4228, December.

Blanchflower, D.G. and Oswald, A.J. (1992) Does access to capital help make an entrepeneur?, NBER Working Paper No. 3252 (rev. version), July.

Williams, H.C., Pottier, A. and Strachan, D. (1993) `The descriptive epidemiology of warts in British schoolchildren’, British Journal of Dermatology 128, pp.504-511.

Gitter, R.J. (1993) A comparative look at apprenticeship training in the United States and Great Britain, Paper presented at the Midwest Economics Association Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, April.

Waldfogel, J. (1993) Women working for less: a longitudinal analysis of the family gap, Welfare State Programme Discussion Paper WSP/93, September, London School of Economics.

Williams, H., Pottier, A. and Strachan, D. (1993) `Are viral warts seen more commonly in children with eczema?’, Arch. Dermatol. 129, pp.717-721.

ALBSU (1993) Parents and their children : the intergenerational effect of poor basic skills, London: Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Unit. Williams, H.C., Strachan, D.P. and Hay, R.J. (1994) `Childhood eczema : disease of the advantaged?’, British Medical Journal, 308, pp.1132-1135.

Blanchflower, D.G. and Oswald, A.J. (1994) What makes an entrepreneur?, Applied Economics Discussion Paper Series: No. 125, October.

Gitter, R.J. (1994) `Apprenticeship-trained workers: United States and Great Britain’, Monthly Labor Review, April.

Laybourn, A. (1994) The only child: myths and reality, Edinburgh: HMSO.

Dearden, L., Machin, S., and Reed, H. Intergenerational mobility in Britain, IFS Working Paper Series No. W95/20, Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Glover, J., Smeaton, D. and Fielding, J. (1995) Gender and Science, engineering and technology (SET) project, memorandum submitted to the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology.

Scarlett, J.F. et al (1995) `Effect of ambient levels of smoke and sulphur dioxide on the health of a national sample of 23 year olds in 1981’, Thorax, 50, pp.764-768.
Strachan, D.P., (1995) `Epidemiology of hay fever: towards a community diagnosis’, Clinical and Experimental Allergy 25, pp.296-303.

Strachan, D.P., `Epidemiology’, IN M. Silverman, (ed) (1995) Childhood asthma and other wheezing disorders, London: Chapman and Hall.

Kiernan, K., (1995) `Social backgrounds and post-birth experiences of young parents’, Findings (Social Policy Research 80).

Kiernan, K., (1995) Transition to parenthood: young mothers, young fathers - associated factors and later life experiences, Welfare State Programme Discussion Paper WSP/113, July, London School of Economics.

Van Bourgognie, F., (1995) Childhood adversities and tendency towards adult depression, Report for MSc Medical Demography, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, September.

Mudari, M. J. C., (1995) The impact of marital disruptions and children's living arrangements on health at age 33: a study using the NCDS cohort population, Report for MSc Medical Demography, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, September.

Joshi, H., Dale, A., Ward, C., and Davies, H. (1995) Dependence and independence in the finances of women aged 33, Family and Parenthood Policy and Practice series, London: Policy Studies Centre. ISBN 0-907051-89-8.

Dustmann, C., Micklewright, J. and Rajah, N. (1995) Intra-household transfers and the part-time work of children Working Paper Series W96/3, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Blundell, R., Dearden, L. and Meghir, C., (1996) The Determinants and Effects of Work Related Training in Britain, London: KKS Printing.

Strachan, D. P., Butland, B. K. and Anderson, H. R. (1996) `Incidence and prognosis of asthma and wheezing illness from early childhood to age 33 in a national British cohort’, British Medical Journal 312, pp.1195-99.

Lewis, S. et al (1996) `Study of the aetiology of wheezing illness at age 16 in two national British birth cohorts’, Thorax, 51, pp.670-676.

Joshi, H., Paci, P., and Waldfogel, J. (1996) The wages of motherhood: better or worse? Welfare State Programme (WSP) Discussion Paper WSP/122, July, The Toyota Centre: London School of Economics.

Johnson, P., and Reed, H., (1996) Two nations? The inheritance of poverty and affluence, IFS Commentary No. 53, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. ISBN 1-873357-53-2.

Strachan, D.P. et al (1996) `Ventilatory function in British adults after asthma and wheezing illness at ages 0-35’, American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 154, pp.1629-1635.

Comings, D. (1996) The gene bomb : does higher education and advanced technology accelerate the selection of genes for learning disorders, ADHD, addictive and disruptive behavior?, Duarte, California: Hope Press (chapters 32-35).

Dale, A. et al (1997) Highly educated women : evidence from the National Child Development Study, DfEE Research Studies No.RS25, London: The Stationery Office.

Egerton, M. (1997) 'Occupational inheritance : the role of cultural capital and gender’, Work, Employment and Society, 11(2), pp.263-282.

Savage, M. and Egerton, M. (1997) 'Social mobility, individual ability and the inheritance of class inequality’, Sociology, 31(4), pp.645-672.

Strachan, D.P. et al (1997) `Childhood antecedents of allergic sensitization in young British adults’, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 99(1), part 1, pp.6-12.

Butland, B.K. et al (1997) `An investigation of the increase in hay fever and eczema at age 16 observed between the 1958 and 1970 British birth cohorts', British Medical Journal, 315, pp.171-721.

Dustmann, C., Rajah, N. and Smith, S. (1997) Teenage truancy, part-time working and wages, IFS Working Paper No.W97/13, Institute for Fiscal Studies, August.

Dearden, L., Ferri, J. and Meghir, C. (1997) The effect of school quality on educational attainment and wages, IFS Working Paper No. W98/3, Institute for Fiscal Studies, October.

Kiernan, K. (1997) The legacy of parental divorce : social, economic and demographic experiences in adulthood, CASEpaper CASE 1, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics.

Power, C. and Matthews, S. (1997) 'Origins of health inequalities in a national population sample’, Lancet, 350, pp.1584-1589.

Burke, A., Nolan, M. and Fitzroy, F. (1997?) Entrepreneurial choice and performance: a re-appraisal of liquidity and human capital constraints, University of St.Andrews Dept. of Economics and CRIEFF Discussion Paper No. 9723. ISSN 1364-453X.

Waldfogel, J., Higuchi, Y. and Abe, M. (1998) Maternity leave policies and women's employment after childbirth : evidence from the United States, Britain and Japan, CASEpaper CASE/3, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics, January.

Atkinson, A. and Hills, J. (eds.) (1998) Exclusion, employment and opportunity, CASEpaper CASE/4, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics, January.

Dearden, L. (1998) Ability, families, education and earnings in Britain, IFS Working Paper Series no. W98/14, Institute for Fiscal Studies, June.

Johnston, I.D.A., Strachan, D.P. and Anderson H.R. (1998) `Longitudinal study of the effect of pneumonia and whooping cough in childhood on adult lung function’, New England Journal of Medicine, 338, pp.581-587.

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National Child Development Study: Sweep 4, 1981, and Public Examination Results, 1978

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