Catalogue

UK Data Service data catalogue record for:

Millennium Cohort Study, 2001-2003: Birth Registration and Maternity Hospital Episode Data

Title details

SN: 5614
Title: Millennium Cohort Study, 2001-2003: Birth Registration and Maternity Hospital Episode Data
Alternative title: MCS
Persistent identifier: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-5614-1
Series: Millennium Cohort Study [Millennium Cohort Study, 2001-]
Depositor: University of London. Institute of Education. Centre for Longitudinal Studies
Principal investigator(s): University of London. Institute of Education. Centre for Longitudinal Studies
Sponsor(s): Department of Health
Other acknowledgements: Leslie L. Davidson (Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City); Rosemary Tate (Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health); Gareth Hughes and Lisa Calderwood (Centre for Longitudinal Studies, Institute of Education, University of London); Yvonne Kelly, Alison Macfarlane and Ziyah Mehta.
The Information Centre, Newcastle, Analytic and Services Branch, Department for Work and Pensions (formerly Department of Social Security) who: identified the main Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) sample from Child Benefit records, and ran an opt-out exercise for MCS1; provided a similar service to enable the inclusion in MCS2 of 'new families' (eligible for inclusion in MCS1 but not identfied in the records until after the completion of the first survey); and assisted with tracing families who had moved, for both MCS1 and MCS2.

Members of the Office for National Statistics (ONS) funding consortium provided advice as well as funding.

Individual academic advisers:
Specialist advisers: Julia Brannen, Tim Cole, Leon Feinstein, Charlie Owen.
Members of the Centre for Longitudinal Studies (CLS) internal team: Neville Butler, John Bynner, Elsa Ferri, Ian Plewis, Peter Shepherd and Kate Smith.

Collaborators on the MCS included: Mel Bartley, Helen Bedford, Dermot Bowler, Leslie Davidson, Carol Dezateux, Harvey Goldstein, Kath Kiernan, Yvonne Kelly, Michael Marmot, Barbara Maughan, Alison McFarlane, Catherine Peckham, Chris Power, Ingrid Schoon and Marjorie Smith.

Members of the Millennium Cohort Study Advisory Group, for advice on the form and content of MCS1, MCS2, MCS3, MCS4 and MCS5.

Citation

The citation for this study is:

University of London. Institute of Education. Centre for Longitudinal Studies. (2008). Millennium Cohort Study, 2001-2003: Birth Registration and Maternity Hospital Episode Data. [data collection]. 3rd Edition. UK Data Service. SN: 5614, http://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-5614-1

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Subject Categories

Child development and child rearing - Social stratification and groupings
Childbearing, family planning and abortion - Health
Family life and marriage - Social stratification and groupings
Health services and medical care - Health

Abstract

Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.

Background:
The original objectives of the first MCS survey, as laid down in the proposal to the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) in March 2000, were:
  • to chart the initial conditions of social, economic and health advantages and disadvantages facing children born at the start of the 21st century, capturing information that the research community of the future will require
  • to provide a basis for comparing patterns of development with the preceding cohorts (the National Child Development Study, held at the UK Data Archive under GN 33004, and the 1970 Birth Cohort Study, held under GN 33229)
  • to collect information on previously neglected topics, such as fathers' involvement in children's care and development
  • to focus on parents as the most immediate elements of the children's 'background', charting their experience as mothers and fathers of newborn babies in the year 2000, recording how they (and any other children in the family) adapted to the newcomer, and what their aspirations for her/his future may be
  • to emphasise intergenerational links including those back to the parents' own childhood
  • to investigate the wider social ecology of the family, including social networks, civic engagement and community facilities and services, splicing in geo-coded data when available
Additional objectives subsequently included for MCS were:
  • to provide control cases for the national evaluation of Sure Start (a government programme intended to alleviate child poverty and social exclusion)
  • to provide samples of adequate size to analyse and compare the smaller countries of the United Kingdom
The first sweep (MCS1) interviewed both mothers and (where resident) fathers (or father-figures) of infants included in the sample when the babies were nine months old, and the second sweep (MCS2) was carried out with the same respondents when the children were three years of age. The third sweep (MCS3) was conducted in 2006, when the children were aged five years old, the fourth sweep (MCS4) in 2008, when they were seven years old, and the fifth sweep (MCS5) in 2012-2013, when they were eleven years old.

Sub-sample studies:
Some studies based on sub-samples of MCS have also been conducted, including a study of MCS respondent mothers who had received assisted fertility treatment, conducted in 2003 (see SN 5559). Also, birth registration and maternity hospital episodes for the MCS respondents are held as a separate dataset (see SN 5614).

Weighting:
Users should note that the weighting section in the 'Guide to the Datasets' document recommends analysis in Stata, as SPSS is not currently able to weight the data using the survey design factors. The depositor is working on a solution for SPSS, but this is not yet available. A Stata version of the dataset is available for download by registered users, alongside the SPSS and tab-delimited versions.

MCS web pages:
Further information about the MCS can be found on the Centre for Longitudinal Studies website.

Birth Registration and Maternity Hospital Episode Data, 2001-2003:
The health questions included in the main MCS covered topics such as the mother's health during pregnancy, birth and delivery, and the baby's health immediately after birth. However, the time constraints on the MCS interview limited the number of health-related questions included in the questionnaire. Furthermore, mothers may not have been able to recall accurately some of the information on pregnancy and delivery when the nine-month interview was conducted. Mothers responding to the nine-month interview were therefore asked to give written consent to the following records being added to the survey:
  • birth registration records, containing personal and demographic information about baby and parents at birth registration
  • centrally collected hospital records: these data contain information about the mother's stay in hospital, including details of any operations performed or any diagnoses that were made during the hospital stay and the length of stay in hospital
Coded hospital of birth data are also included in the dataset (see file hospanon_ns). The corresponding uncoded hospital of birth data are held under SN 5724, but users should note that they are subject to stringent Special Licence Access conditions. For further information on data coverage and record linkage, see documentation.

For the third edition of the study (March 2008), a new version of the data file was deposited, with the family serial number variable (famsrno) replaced by a new serial number variable, mcsid (MCS Research Serial Number). The documentation remains unchanged. For a full edition history, see the study READ file (link below).

Main Topics:
The data comprise nine files, four covering birth registrations for MCS respondents in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, four covering maternity hospital episodes for the same countries and respondents, and one covering coded hospital of birth data. Data coverage may vary between the countries; see documentation for further details.

Coverage, universe, methodology

Time period: 2001 - 2003
Country: United Kingdom
Spatial units: Countries
Observation units: Individuals
Families/households
Kind of data: Numeric data
Alpha/numeric data
Individual (micro) level
Universe: National
Maternity hospital episodes and birth registrations for MCS respondents.
The sample population for MCS was drawn from all live births in the United Kingdom over 12 months (from 1 September 2000 in England and Wales and for 59 weeks from 22 November 2000 in Scotland and Northern Ireland).
Time dimensions: Longitudinal/panel/cohort
Six waves have been conducted to date: MCS1 (age 9 months), MCS2 (age 3 years), MCS3 (age 5 years), MCS4 (age 7 years), MCS5 (age 11 years) and MCS6 (age 14 years)
Sampling procedures: No sampling (total universe)
Method of data collection: Compilation or synthesis of existing material
Weighting: No weighting used.

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Administrative and access information

Date of release:
First edition: 16 April 2007
Latest edition: 18 March 2008 (3rd Edition)
Copyright: Copyright University of London. Centre for Longitudinal Studies
Access conditions: The depositor has specified that registration is required and standard conditions of use apply. The depositor may be informed about usage.
Additional special conditions of use also apply. See terms and conditions of access for further information.
Availability: UK Data Service
Contact: Get in touch

Documentation

Title File Name Size (KB)
CLS Confidentiality and Data Security Review cls_confidentiality_and_data_security_review.pdf 40
MCS Birth Registration and Maternity Hospital Episode Statistics Linkage Guide mcs_br_hes_user_guide.pdf 175
MCS Hospital of Birth Coding Guide mcs_hospital_of_birth_coding_guide.pdf 332
Study information and citation UKDA_Study_5614_Information.htm 6
READ File read5614.htm 12
View related studies and guides... Hide related studies and guides...

Related studies:

  Millennium Cohort Study: First Survey, 2001-2003 (SN 4683)
  Millennium Cohort Study: Second Survey, 2003-2005 (SN 5350)
  Millennium Cohort Study: Survey of Mothers who Received Assisted Fertility Treatment, 2003 (SN 5559)
  Millennium Cohort Study: Third Survey, 2006 (SN 5795)
  Millennium Cohort Study: Fourth Survey, 2008 (SN 6411)
  Millennium Cohort Study: Third Survey, Teacher Survey and Foundation Stage Profile, 2006 (SN 6847)
  Millennium Cohort Study: Fourth Survey, Teacher Survey, 2008 (SN 6848)
  Millennium Cohort Study: Second Survey, 2003-2005: Oral Fluid Collection Bioassay Data (SN 6993)
  Millennium Cohort Study: Fourth Survey, Physical Activity Data, 2008 (SN 7238)
  Millennium Cohort Study: First Survey, Health Visitor Survey, 2002-2003 (SN 7261)
  Millennium Cohort Study: Fifth Survey, 2012 (SN 7464)
  Millennium Cohort Study, Sweeps 1-6, 2001-2015: Linked to MEDIx Air Pollution Deciles (SN 8153)
  Millennium Cohort Study, Sweeps 1-5, 2001-2012: Linked to Green Space Deciles at LSOA (England) and Ward Level (UK) (SN 8154)
  Millennium Cohort Study: Sixth Survey, 2015 (SN 8156)
  Millennium Cohort Study: Longitudinal Family File, 2001-2015 (SN 8172)
  Millennium Cohort Study: Third Survey, 2006: Banded Distances to Current, First, Second, and Third Choice Schools (SN 8240)
  Ethnicity Coding for the Millennium Cohort Study, First Survey, 2001-2003 (SN 6073)

Related case studies:

The effect of infertility and its treatment on child health and development
Does premature birth affect a child's long-term health or development?
What predicts our level of well-being?
Parenting and contact before and after separation

Publications

View publications... Hide publications...

By principal investigator(s):
Publications based on the MCS can be found on the Centre for Longitudinal Studies website.

Resulting from secondary analysis:
Waldfogel, J. (2004) Social mobility, life chances and the early years, CASEpaper 88, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics.

McKay, S. (2004) 'Charting change in the devolved administrations: assessing the evidence base', Benefits, 12, pp.183-191.

Rowlingson, K. and McKay, S. (2005) 'Lone motherhood and socio-economic disadvantage: insights from quantitative and qualitative evidence', Sociological Review, 53(1), pp. 30-49.

Kiernan, K. (2005) Non-residential fatherhood and child involvement: evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study, CASEpaper 100, STICERD, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics.

Kiernan, K. and Pickett, K. (2006) 'Marital status disparities in maternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding and maternal depression', Social Science and Medicine, 63, pp.335-346.

Kiernan, K.E. and Huerta, M.C. (2008) 'Economic deprivation, maternal depression, parenting and children's cognitive and emotional development in early childhood' British Journal of Sociology, December, 59(4), pp.781-806.

Kiernan, K.E. and Mensah, F.K. (2009) 'Poverty, maternal depression, family status and children's cognitive and behavioural development in early childhood: a longitudinal study', Journal of Social Policy, 38(4) pp.569-588.

Pollet, T.V., Nelissen, M. and Nettle, D. (2009) 'Lineage based differences in grandparental investment: evidence from a large British cohort study', Journal of Biosocial Science, 41, pp.353-379.

Mensah, F.K and Kiernan, K.E. (2010) 'Gender differences in educational attainment: influences of the family environment', British Journal of Educational Research, 36(2), pp.239-260.

Emerson, E., Graham, H., McCulloch, A., Blacher, J., Hatton, C., and Llewellyn, G. (2009) 'The social context of parenting three year old children with developmental delay in the UK', Child: Health, Care, Development, 35(1), pp.63-70.

Emerson, E., and Einfeld, S. (2010) 'Emotional and behavioural difficulties in young children with and without developmental delay: a bi-national perspective' Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 51, pp.583-93.

Emerson, E., McCulloch, A., Graham, H., Blacher, J., Llewellyn, G., and Hatton, C. (2010) 'Socio-economic circumstances and risk of common psychiatric disorders among parents of young children with and without early cognitive delay in the UK', American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 115, pp.30-42.

Hatton, C., Emerson, E., Graham, H., Blacher, J., and Llewellyn, G. (2010) 'Changes in family composition and marital status in families with a young child with cognitive delay', Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 23, pp.14-26.

Jones, M., Blackaby, D. and Murphy, P. (2010) An investigation into regional differences in child health and cognitive function, report for the Welsh Assembly Government Economic Research Unit, Cardiff: Welsh Assembly Government.

Kiernan, K.E. and Mensah, F.K. (2010) 'Unmarried parenthood, family trajectories, parent and child well-being', in K. Hansen, H. Joshi and S. Dex (eds.) Children of the 21st century: from birth to age 5, London: Policy Press, Chapter 5, pp.75-92.

Mensah, F.K. and Kiernan, K.E. (2010) 'Parents' mental health and children's cognitive and social development', Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45(11), pp.1023-1035.

Nikiema, B., Spencer, N. and Seguin L. (2010) 'Poverty and chronic illness in early childhood: a comparison between the United Kingdom and Quebec', Pediatrics, originally published online Feb 1, 2010 (2010;125;e499-e507;). DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-0701.

Totsika, V., Hastings, R.P., Emerson, E, Berridge, D.M., and Lancaster, G.A. (2011) 'Behavior problems at five years of age and maternal mental health in autism and intellectual disability', Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, pp.1137-47.

Totsika, V., Hastings, R.P., Emerson, E., Lancaster, G.A. and Berridge, D M. (2011) 'A population-based investigation of behavioural and emotional problems and maternal mental health: associations with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability', Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 52, pp.91-99.

Tunstall, R., Lupton, R., Kneale, D. and Jenkins, A. (2011) Growing up in social housing in the New Millennium: housing, neighbourhoods and early outcomes for children born in 2000, CASEpaper 143, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics.

Mensah, F.K. and Kiernan, K.E. (2011) 'Maternal general health and children's cognitive development and behaviour in the early years: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study', Child Care, Health and Development, 37, pp.44-54.

Kiernan, K.E. and Mensah, F.K. (2011) 'Poverty, family resources and children's educational attainment: the mediating role of parenting', British Journal of Educational Research, 37(2), pp.317-336.

Pollet, T.V., Nelissen, M. and Nettle D. (2012) 'A 'gendered need' explanation does not
fully explain lineage based differences in grandparental investment found in a
large british cohort study', Journal of Biosocial Science, 44, pp.377-381.

Holford, A. (July 2012) Take-up of free school meals: price effects and peer effects, ISER Working Paper Series, No.2012-12.

Lakshman R., Zhang, J., Zhang, J., Koch, F.S., Marcus, C., Ludvigsson, J., Ong, K.K. and Sobko, T. (2012) 'Higher maternal education is associated with favourable growth of young children in different countries', Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, published online first: doi:10.1136/jech-2012-202021

Jackson, M., Mclanahan, S. and Kiernan, K. (2012) 'Nativity differences in mothers' health behaviors: a cross-national and longitudinal lens', The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 642(1), pp.192-218.

Jackson, M., Kiernan, K. and Mclanahan, S. (2012) 'Immigrant-native differences in child health: does maternal education narrow or widen the gap?', Journal of Child Development, 83(5), pp.1501-1509.

Prady, S.L., Kiernan, K., Bloor, K. and Pickett, K.E. (2012) 'Do risk factors for post-partum smoking vary according to marital status?', Maternal and Child Health, 16(7), pp.1364-1373.

Taulbut, M. and Walsh, D. (2013) Poverty, parenting and poor health: comparing early years' experiences in Scotland, England and three city regions, Glasgow Centre for Population Health, February.

Crawford, C., Dearden, L. and Greaves, E. (2013) When you are born matters: evidence for England, IFS Reports, R80, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/re.ifs.2013.0080. Retrieved August 19, 2013 from http://www.ifs.org.uk/comms/r80.pdf

Crawford, C., Dearden, L. and Greaves, E. (2013) Identifying the drivers of month of birth differences in educational attainment, IFS Working Papers, W13/09, May. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/wp.ifs.2013.1309. Retrieved August 19, 2013 from http://www.ifs.org.uk/wps/wp201309.pdf

Greaves, E. (2013) 'Parents' preferences for school attributes: a discrete choice model incorporating unobserved heterogeneity', paper presented at CMPO conference, London, Thursday 23 May 2013.

Greaves, E. (2013) 'Parents' preferences for school attributes: a discrete choice model incorporating unobserved heterogeneity', paper presented at ESPE conference, Aarhus, Denmark, Thursday 13 June 2013.

Greaves, E. (2013) 'Marriage, cohabitation and child outcomes', paper presented at Understanding Society conference, University of Essex, Thursday 25 July 2013.

Prady, S.L. and Kiernan, K.E. (2013) 'The effect of post-natal mental distress amongst Indian and Pakistani mothers living in England on children's behavioural outcomes', Child Care, Health and Development, 39(5), pp.710-721.

Holmes, J. and Kiernan, K. (2013) 'Persistent poverty and children's development in the early years of childhood', Policy and Politics, 41(1), pp.19-42. doi:10.1332/030557312x645810

Totsika, V, Hastings, R.P., Emerson, E., Lancaster , G.A., Berridge, D.M., Vagenas, D. (2013) 'Is there a bidirectional relationship between maternal well-being and child behavior problems in autism spectrum disorders? Longitudinal analysis of a population-defined sample of young children, Autism Research, 6, pp.201-11.

Shackleton, N.L. and Campbell, T. (2013) 'Are teachers' judgements of pupils' ability influenced by body shape?', International Journal of Obesity, 15 November. doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.210

Campbell, T. (2013) 'Stratified at seven: in-class ability grouping and the relative age effect', British Educational Research Journal, 40(5). doi:10.1002/berj.3127

Campbell, T. (2013) In-school ability grouping and the month of birth effect: preliminary evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study, Centre for Longitudinal Studies Cohort Studies Working paper 2013/1. See http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk

Campbell, T. (2014) Selected at seven: The relationship between teachers' judgments and assessments of pupils, and pupils' stream placements, Department of Quantitative Social Science Working Paper No. 14-10, Institute of Education, University of London. Retrieved May 10th, 2017 from: http://repec.ioe.ac.uk/REPEc/pdf/qsswp1410.pdf

Sellers, R., Maughan, B., Pickles, A., Thapar, A. and Collishaw, S. (2014) 'Trends in parent- and teacher-rated emotional, conduct and ADHD problems and their impact in prepubertal children in Great Britain: 1999–2008', Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12273.

Chiorri, C., Day, T. and Malmberg, L-E. (2014) 'An approximate measurement invariance approach to within-couple relationship quality', Frontiers in Quantitative Psychology and Measurement, (special issue edited by R. Van De Schoot, P. Schmidt and A. De Beuckelaer), 19 September. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00983 Retrieved October 21, 2014 from http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00983/abstract

Emerson, E., Blacher, J., Einfeld, S., Hatton, C., Robertson, J. and Stancliffe, R.J. (2014) 'Environmental risk factors associated with the persistence of conduct difficulties in children with intellectual disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders, Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35, pp.3508–3517.

Totsika, V, Hastings, R.P., Vagenas, D. and Emerson, E. (2014) 'Parenting and the behaviour problems of young children with an intellectual disability: Concurrent and longitudinal relationships in a population-based study, American Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 119, pp.422-435.

Gore, N., Emerson, E. and Brady, S. (2015) 'Rates of breastfeeding and exposure to socio-economic adversity amongst children with intellectual disability', Research in Developmental Disabilities, 39, pp.12-19.

Hindmarsh, G., Llewellyn, G. and Emerson, E., (2015) 'Mothers with intellectual impairment and their 9 month old infants, Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 59, pp.541-550. doi: 10.1111/jir.12159

Totsika, V., Hastings, R.P., Emerson, E., Berridge, D., Lancaster, G.A. (2015) 'Prosocial skills in young children with autism, and their mothers’ psychological well-being: longitudinal relationships, Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, pp.13-14, 25-31. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2015.01.001

Bernardi, F. and Grätz, M. (2015) 'Making up for an unlucky month of birth in school: causal evidence on the compensatory advantage of family background in England', Sociological Science, 2, pp.235-251.

Cruise, S.M. and O'Reilly, D. (2015) 'Are the differences in adulthood ill-health across the North-South divide and between Scotland and England also evident in early childhood health indicators?', Social Science and Medicine, 130, pp.277-283. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.02.021 (ISSN 0277-9536) (IF 2.558)

Taylor-Robinson, D.C., Pearce, A., Whitehead, M., Smyth, R. and Law, C. (2015) 'Social inequalities in wheezing in children: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study', Eur Respir J, Dec 17. pii: ERJ-01117-2015. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01117-2015. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26677938

Martin, A., Booth, J.N., Young, D., Revie, M., Boyter, A.C., Johnston, B., Tomporowski, P.D. and Reilly, J.J. (2015) 'Associations between obesity and cognition in the pre-school years', Obesity, published online: 6 December 2015. doi 10.1002/oby.21329

Haux, T., Platt, L. and Rosenberg, R. (2015) Parenting and post-separation contact: what are the links?, CASEPaper 189, London School of Economics: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion. Retrieved May 16th, 2016 from http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/case/cp/casepaper189.pdf

Platt, L., Haux, T. and Rosenberg, R. (2015) Mothers, parenting and the impact of separation, CASEPaper 190, London School of Economics: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion. Retrieved May 16th, 2016 from http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/case/cp/casepaper190.pdf

Campbell, T. (2015) 'Stereotyped at seven? Biases in teacher judgement of pupils' ability and attainment', Journal of Social Policy, 44(3), pp.517-547. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047279415000227

Emerson, E. (2015) The determinants of health inequities experienced by children with learning disabilities, London: Public Health England. See https://www.improvinghealthandlives.org.uk

Grätz, M. (2015) Compensating disadvantageous life events: social origin differences in the effects of family and sibling characteristics on educational outcomes, Ph.D. Thesis, European University Institute, Florence. See http://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/38784

Penny, A. (2016) Parentally bereaved children communicating their feelings: preliminary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study 5, London: National Children's Bureau Childhood Bereavement Network.

Kroll, M.E., Carson, C., Redshaw, M. and Quigley, M.A. (2016) 'Early father involvement and subsequent child behaviour at ages 3, 5 and 7 years: prospective analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study', PLoS ONE, 11(9), art. no. e0162339.

Emerson, E., Hatton, C., Baines, S. and Robertson, J. (2016) 'Exposure to second hand tobacco smoke and smoking at age 11 among British children with and without intellectual disability', Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60, pp.274–281.

Emerson, E., Robertson, J., Baines, S. and Hatton, C. (2016) 'Predictors of self-reported alcohol use and attitudes toward alcohol among 11 year old British children with and without intellectual disability', Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60, pp.1212-1226.

Emerson, E., Robertson, J., Baines, S. and Hatton, C. (2016) 'Obesity in British children with and without intellectual disability: cohort study', BMC Public Health 16, p.644. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3309-1

Hindmarsh, G., Llewellyn, G. and Emerson, E. (2016) 'The social-emotional wellbeing of children of mothers with intellectual impairment: a population-based analysis', Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. doi:10.1111/jar.12306

Chiu, M-S. (2016) 'Effects of teacher assessment and cognitive ability on self-concepts: Longitudinal mechanisms for children from diverse backgrounds', Saudi Journal of Engineering and Technology, 1(4), pp.180-189. doi:10.21276/sjeat.2016.1.4.9

Chiu, M-S. (2016/2017) 'Extending the internal/external frame of reference model to early-year cognitive abilities for children from diverse backgrounds', International Journal of Quantitative Research in Education.

Connelly, R. and Gayle, V. (2017) 'An investigation of the consistency of parental occupational information in UK birth records and a national social survey', European Sociological Review, see https://academic.oup.com/esr/article/2957093/An-Investigation-of-the-Consistency-of-Parental?searchresult=1

Grätz, M. and Bernardi, F. (2017) 'Parental responses to disadvantageous life events: the month of birth penalty in England', in J. Erola and E. Kilpi-Jakonen (eds.), Social inequality across the generations: the role of resource compensation and multiplication in resource accumulation, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar.

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Millennium Cohort Study, 2001-2003: Birth Registration and Maternity Hospital Episode Data

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