Catalogue

UK Data Service data catalogue record for:

National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Assessment of Dietary Sodium in Adults, 2006/09 and 2011/15

Title details

SN: 8233
Title: National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Assessment of Dietary Sodium in Adults, 2006/09 and 2011/15
Persistent identifier: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-8233-7
Series: National Diet and Nutrition Survey [National Diet and Nutrition Surveys, 1992-]
Depositor: NatCen Social Research
Principal investigator(s): NatCen Social Research
MRC Elsie Widdowson Laboratory
Data collector(s): NatCen Social Research
University of Ulster
Sponsor(s): Public Health England
Food Standards Agency
Food Standards Scotland
Food Standards Agency in Northern Ireland
Welsh Government

Citation

The citation for this study is:

NatCen Social Research, MRC Elsie Widdowson Laboratory. (2018). National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Assessment of Dietary Sodium in Adults, 2006/09 and 2011/15. [data collection]. 2nd Edition. UK Data Service. SN: 8233, http://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-8233-7

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Subject Categories

Nutrition - Health
Social attitudes and behaviour - Society and culture
Social attitudes and behaviour - Society and culture

Abstract

Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.

The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) programme was initially established in 1992 and started off as a joint initiative between the then Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) and the Department of Health. The initial phase of surveys included four cross-sectional surveys which covered separate age groups: children and young people (see SNs 3481 and 4243); adults (SN 5140); and people aged 65 years and over (SN 4036). In 2008, a new continuous cross-sectional survey was started, the NDNS Rolling Programme (RP). The NDNS RP is funded by Public Health England (PHE), an executive agency of the Department of Health, and the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) and is carried out by a consortium comprising NatCen Social Research and the MRC Elsie Widdowson Laboratory (MRC EWL), formerly known as MRC Human Nutrition Research (HNR). Fieldwork in Northern Ireland is carried out by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA).

The NDNS RP provides the only source of high quality, nationally representative UK data on the types and quantities of foods consumed by individuals, from which estimates of nutrient intake for the population are derived. Results are used by Government to develop policy and monitor progress toward diet and nutrition objectives of UK Health Departments, for example work to tackle obesity and monitor progress towards a healthy, balanced diet as visually depicted in the Eatwell Guide. The NDNS RP provides an important source of evidence underpinning the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition's (SACN) work relating to national nutrition policy. The food consumption data are also used by the FSA to assess exposure to chemicals in food, as part of the risk assessment and communication process in response to a food emergency or to inform negotiations on setting regulatory limits for contaminants.

Further information is available from the gov.uk National Diet and Nutrition Survey webpage.

Assessment of Dietary Sodium in Adults:
The Assessment of Dietary Sodium is an add-on study to the NDNS RP, and is funded by Public Health England (PHE), an executive agency of the Department of Health, and the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA). It is carried out by a consortium comprising NatCen Social Research (NatCen) and MRC Elsie Widdowson Laboratory (MRC EWL), formerly known as MRC Human Nutrition Research (HNR). Fieldwork in Northern Ireland was carried out by fieldworkers from the University of Ulster.

The Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommend a target reduction in the average salt intake of the population to no more than 6g per day. This figure has been adopted by the UK government as the recommended maximum salt intake for adults and children aged 11 years and over. Following publication of the SACN report in 2003, the government began a programme of reformulation work with the food industry aimed at reducing the salt content of processed food products. Voluntary salt reduction targets were first set in 2006, and subsequently in 2009, 2011 and 2014, for a range of food categories that contribute the most to the population's salt intakes.

Dietary salt intake can be assessed by measuring sodium excretion in urine. Since the level of sodium in urine fluctuates according to what was eaten at the last meal and how much fluid an individual has drunk, and because salt is the predominant source of sodium in the UK diet, a urine collection over 24 hours is accepted as being the most reliable method for assessing salt intake in the population.

Eleven urinary sodium surveys of adults aged 19-64 years have been conducted (as part of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (NDNS RP) or as stand-alone surveys) between 2000 and 2015, some covering the UK as a whole and some in a single devolved country. The surveys are included in this dataset, as follows:
  • England 2006 sodium survey of adults aged 19-64 years
  • Scotland 2006 sodium survey of adults aged 19-64 years
  • Wales 2007 sodium survey of adults aged 19-64 years
  • UK 2008 sodium survey of adults aged 19-64 years
  • Scotland 2009 sodium survey of adults aged 19-64 years
  • England 2011 sodium study
  • England 2014 sodium study
  • Scotland sodium study 2014
  • Northern Ireland sodium study 2015
Further information can be found at the following webpages:For the second edition (May 2018) data and documentation for the 2006-2009 surveys have been added; the study originally covered 2011-2015. It should be noted, however, that not all UK countries are covered in all survey years.

Main Topics:
A 24-hour urine collection method was used as it is regarded as the gold-standard method of assessing salt intake in population surveys and was consistent with previous surveys. Since the level of sodium in urine fluctuates according to what was eaten at the last meal and how much fluid an individual has drunk, and because salt is the predominant source of sodium in the UK diet, a urine collection over 24 hours is accepted as being the most reliable method for assessing salt intake in the population. Results from an incomplete 24-hour urine collection are misleading because they do not reflect 24-hour intake. To be usable in the final analysis the 24-hour collection had to be complete, or within the range regarded as 'adjustable' which can be assessed by analysis of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) excretion.

Coverage, universe, methodology

Dates of fieldwork: 2006-2009 and 2011-2015
Country: England | Northern Ireland | Scotland | Wales
Spatial units: Government Office Regions
Observation units: Individuals
Kind of data: Numeric data
Individual (micro) level
Universe: National
Adults aged 19-64 in England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. A maximum of two adults per household were recruited with the aim of collecting 600 useable 24-hour urine samples in England and Scotland, and 550 useable samples in Northern Ireland.
Time dimensions: Repeated cross-sectional study
Sampling procedures: Multi-stage stratified random sample
Multi-stage stratified random sample
Number of units: 2006/09 file: 2,967 cases. 2011/15 file: 3,335 cases
Method of data collection: Face-to-face interview; Telephone interview; Clinical measurements
Weighting: Survey weight variable for urine included. See documentation for details.

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Administrative and access information

Date of release:
First edition: 07 September 2017
Latest edition: 22 May 2018 (2nd Edition)
Copyright: Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland
Access conditions: The depositor has specified that registration is required and standard conditions of use apply. The depositor may be informed about usage. See terms and conditions for further information.
Availability: UK Data Service
Contact: Get in touch

Documentation

Title File Name Size (KB)
Derived Variables 2006 - 2009 8233_sodium_2006-2009_derived_variable_list.pdf 596
List of Variables 2006 - 2009 8233_sodium_2006-2009_list_of_variables.pdf 669
User Guide 2006 - 2009 8233_sodium_2006-2009_user_guide.pdf 689
Protocol for 24-hour urine collection 8233_sodium_2011-2015_24-hour_urine_protocol.pdf 366
Editor's Code Sheet – Nurse CAPI 8233_sodium_2011-2015_coding_and_editing_instructions.pdf 324
Derived Variables 2011 - 2015 8233_sodium_2011-2015_derived_variable_list.pdf 301
Fieldworker Project Instructions 8233_sodium_2011-2015_fieldworker_instructions.pdf 1972
Individual Case Form 8233_sodium_2011-2015_individual_case_form_ni.pdf 492
Keying Instructions 8233_sodium_2011-2015_keying_instructions.pdf 371
List of Variables 2011 - 2015 8233_sodium_2011-2015_list_of_variables.pdf 281
Nurse Project Instructions 8233_sodium_2011-2015_nurse_instructions.pdf 1434
Telephone Unit Project Instructions 8233_sodium_2011-2015_tel_unit_project_instructions_ni.pdf 611
User Guide 2011 - 2015 8233_sodium_2011-2015_user_guide.pdf 361
Study information and citation UKDA_Study_8233_Information.htm 7
READ File read8233.htm 11

Publications

View publications... Hide publications...

By principal investigator(s):
2006/09:
See Abstract for links to publications.

2001/15:
Sadler, K., Nicholson, S., Steer, T., Gill, V., Bates, B., Tipping, S., Cox, L., Lennox, A. and Prentice, A. (2011) National Diet and Nutrition Survey - Assessment of dietary sodium in adults (aged 19 to 64 years) in England, 2011. Retrieved September 5th, 2017 from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/assessment-of-dietary-sodium-levels-among-adults-aged-19-64-in-england-2011

Bates, B., Cox, L., Maplethorpe, N., Mazumder, A., Nicholson, S., Page, P., Prentice, A., Rooney, K., Ziauddeen, N. and Swan, G. (2014) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: assessment of dietary sodium Adults (19 to 64 years) in England, 2014. Retrieved September 5th, 2017 from https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-assessment-of-dietary-sodium-in-adults-in-england-2014

Bates, B., Cox, L., Maplethorpe, N., Mazumder, A., Nicholson, S., Page, P., Prentice, A., Rooney, K., Ziauddeen, N., Swan, G. and Milne, A. (2014)
National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Assessment of dietary sodium Adults (19 to 64 years) in Scotland, 2014. Retrieved September 5th, 2017 from http://www.foodstandards.gov.scot/national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-assessment-dietary-sodium

Bates, B., Cox, L., Maplethorpe, N., Mazumder, A., Nicholson, S., Page, P., Prentice, A., Rooney, K., Ziauddeen, N., Swan, G. and Casey, J. (2015)National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Assessment of dietary sodium Adults (19 to 64 years) in Northern Ireland, 2015. Retrieved September 5th, 2017 from https://www.food.gov.uk/northern-ireland/nutritionni/national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-assessment-of-dietary-sodium
Gregory, J.R. et al. (1995) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: children aged 1 1/2 to 4 1/2 years, volume 1: report of the Diet and Nutrition survey, London: HMSO.

Hinds, K. and Gregory, J.R. (1995) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Children Aged 1 1/2 to 4 1/2 years, volume 2: report of the Dental Survey, London: HMSO.

White, A.J. and Davies, P.S.W. (1994) Feasibility study for the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Children Aged 1 1/2 to 4 1/2 Years, London: OPCS, NM22.

Davies, P.S.W. et al. (1994) 'Total energy expenditure and energy intake in the pre-school child: a comparison', British Journal of Nutrition, 72(1).

Steele, J.G. et al. (1998) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: people aged 65 years and over, volume 2: report of the Oral Health Survey, London: TSO.

Sheiham, A. et al. (1999) 'The impact of oral health on stated ability to eat certain foods: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Older People in Great Britain' Gerodontology, 16(1), July.

Gregory J. et al. (2000) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Young People Aged 4 to 18 Years, volume 1: report of the Diet and Nutrition Survey, London: TSO.

Walker A. (2000) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Young People Aged 4 to 18 Years, volume 2: report of the Oral Health Survey, London: TSO.

Walls, A.W.G. et al. (2000) 'Oral health and nutrition in older people' Journal of Public Health and Dentistry, 60(4), Fall.

Henderson L., Gregory J. and Swan G. (2002) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years: volume 1: types and quantities of foods consumed, London: TSO.

Henderson, L. et al. (2003) The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years: volume 2: energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat and alcohol intake, London: TSO.

Henderson, L. et al. (2003) The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years: volume 3: vitamin and mineral intake and urinary analytes, London: TSO.

Ruston, D. et al. (2004) The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years: volume 4: nutritional status (anthropometry and blood analytes), blood pressure and physical activity, London: TSO.

Hoare, J. et al. (2004) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years: volume 5: summary report, London: TSO.

Bates, B., Lennox, A., Prentice, A., Bates, C. and Swan, G. (2012) (eds.) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: headline results from Years 1, 2 and 3 (combined) of the Rolling Programme (2008/2009 – 2010/11), retrieved January 18, 2013, from https://www.wp.dh.gov.uk/transparency/files/2012/07/NDNS-Y3-report_All-TEXT-docs-combined.pdf

Taylor, C.M., Golding, J. and Emond, A.M. (2013) 'Intake of game birds in the UK: assessment of the contribution to the dietary intake of lead by women of childbearing age and children', Public Health Nutrition, doi: 10.1017/S1368980013000748

Bates, B., Cox, L., Nicholson, S., Page, P., Prentice, A., Steer, T. and Swan, G. (eds.) (2016) National Diet and Nutrition Survey results from Years 5 and 6 (combined) of the Rolling Programme (2012/2013 – 2013/2014), London: PHE. Retrieved February 22nd, 2017 from: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/ndns-results-from-years-5-and-6-combined

Coulthard, J.D., Pot, G.K. (2016) 'The timing of the evening meal: how is this associated with weight status in UK children?', British Journal of Nutrition, May, 115(9), pp.1616-22. Epub 2016 Mar 15. doi: 10.1017/S0007114516000635

See also the gov.uk main National Diet and Nutrition Survey webpage for relevant publications.

Resulting from secondary analysis:
Beard, T.C. et al. (1997) 'Association between blood pressure and dietary factors in the Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults' Archives of Internal Medicine, 157, January 27, pp.234-238.

Watt, R., Dykes, J. and Sheiham, A. (2000) 'Drink consumption in British pre-school children: relation to vitamin C, iron and calcium intakes' Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 13(1), pp.13-19.

Watt, R., Dykes, J. and Sheiham, A. (2000) 'Pre-school children's consumption of drinks: implications for dental health' Community Dental Health, 17(1), pp.8-13.

Gibson, S. (2003) 'Micronutrient intakes, micronutrient status and lipid profiles among young people consuming different amounts of breakfast cereals: further analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Young People Aged 4 to 18 Years', Public Health Nutrition, 6(8), pp.815-82.

Gibson, S., Lambert, J. and Neate, D. (2004) 'Associations between weight status, physical activity and consumption of biscuits, cakes and confectionery among young people in Britain' Nutrition Bulletin, 29, pp.301-309, British Nutrition Foundation.

Gibson, S. and Ashwell, M. (2004) 'Implications of low red meat consumption for iron status of young people in Britain', Nutrition and Food Science, 34(6), pp.253-259.

Rennie, K.L., Jebb, S.A., Wright, A. and Coward, W.A. (2005) 'Secular trends in under-reporting in young people', British Journal of Nutrition, 93, pp.241-247.

Jebb, S.A., Rennie, K.L. and Cole, T.J. (2003) 'Prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in Great Britain', Public Health Nutrition, 7, pp.461-465.

Rennie, K.L. and Jebb, S.A. (2003) 'Sedentary lifestyles are associated with being overweight and consumption of savoury snacks in young people (4-18 years)', Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62(83A).

Thane, C.W., Bolton-Smith, C. and Coward, W.A. (2006) 'Comparative dietary intake and sources of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) among British adults in 1986-7 and 2000-1', British Journal of Nutrition, 96, pp.1105-1115.

Thane, C.W., Bolton-Smith, C. and Coward, W.A. (2006) 'Plasma phylloquinone (vitamin K1) concentration and its relationship to intake in British adults aged 19-64 years', British Journal of Nutrition, 96, pp.1116-1124.

Thane, C.W. and Stephen, A.M. (2006) 'Day-to-day variation in food and nutrient intakes of British adults', Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 9(7A), p.102 (abstract).

Thane, C.W. and Stephen, A.M. (2006) 'Day-to-day variation in micronutrient intakes of British young people', Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 9(7A), p.102-103 (abstract).

Thane, C.W. et al. (2007) 'Comparative whole-grain intake of British adults in 1986-7 and 2000-1', British Journal of Nutrition, 97, pp.987-92.

Gibson, S. and Neate, D. (2007) 'Sugar intake, soft drink consumption and body weight among British children: further analysis of National Diet and Nutrition Survey data with adjustment for under-reporting and physical activity', International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 58(6), pp.445-460. (Users should note that the article abstract is viewable online free of charge, but access to the full article requires subscription).

Milton, J.E. et al. (2007) 'Relationship of glycaemic index with cardiovascular risk factors: analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey for people aged 65 and older', Public Health Nutrition, 10, pp.1321-35.

Mansfield, P.J. (2007) 'Fluoride consumption: much higher than we are told', British Medical Journal, Rapid Response, 5 October.

Swan, G.E. (2007) 'Fluoride intake in the National Diet and Nutrition Study', British Medical Journal, Rapid Response, 18 October.

Gibson, S. and Boyd, A. (2009) 'Associations between added sugars and micronutrient intakes and status: further analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Young People aged 4 to 18 years', British Journal of Nutrition, 101, pp.100–107. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114508981484.

Theobald, C., Chatterjee, A. and Horgan, G. (2012) 'A hierarchical Bayesian mixture model for repeated dietary records', Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50, pp.320-327. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2011.10.050

Timmins K.A., Hulme C. and Cade J.E. (2013) 'The monetary value of diets consumed by British adults: an exploration into sociodemographic differences in individual-level diet costs', Public Health Nutrition, Oct 29, pp.1-9.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980013002905 [Epub ahead of print]

Timmins, K.A., Hulme, C. and Cade, J. (2013) 'Household income as a measure of wealth: an appraisal of the benefits of equivalization in epidemiological research', European Journal of Epidemiology, 28, S136-S137.

Timmins, K.A. (2013) 'Dietary value for money? Investigating how the monetary value of diets in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey relate to dietary energy density', Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 72(OCE4), E295.

Timmins, K., Hulme, C. and Cade, J. (2013) 'Food budget apportioning and body mass index in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS): introducing a fresh approach to quantifying diet costs, using constituent food groups', and Timmins, K., Hulme, C. and Cade, J. (2013) 'Are cheap calories to blame? How the monetary cost of diets consumed by British adults relates to overweight and obesity', retrieved December 9, 2103 from http://secure.isbnpa.org/media/pdfs/abstracts/2013/ISBNPA2013_Abstract_Book.pdf

Timmins, K., Hulme, C. and Cade, J. (2013) 'Income and wealth: what should we be measuring? A comparison of the usefulness of household income versus equivalized household income in obesity research', Obesity Facts, 6(suppl 1), pp.226-227.

Green, R.E. and Pain, D.J. (2016) 'Risks of health effects to humans in the UK from ammunition-derived lead', in R.J. Delahay and C.J. Spray (eds.) Lead ammunition: understanding and minimising the risks to human and environmental health, Proceedings of the Oxford Lead Symposium, 10 December 2014, Edward Grey Institute, University of Oxford.

Carroll, H.A., Betts, J.A. and Johnson, L. (2016) 'An investigation into the relationship between plain water intake and glycated Hb (HbA1c): a sex-stratified, cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–2012)', British Journal of Nutrition. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516003688

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