Catalogue

UK Data Service data catalogue record for:

National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Assessment of Dietary Sodium in Adults, 2011-2015

Title details

SN: 8233
Title: National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Assessment of Dietary Sodium in Adults, 2011-2015
Persistent identifier: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-8233-1
Series: National Diet and Nutrition Survey [National Diet and Nutrition Surveys, 1992-]
Depositor: NatCen Social Research
Principal investigator(s): NatCen Social Research
MRC Elsie Widdowson Laboratory
Data collector(s): NatCen Social Research
University of Ulster
Sponsor(s): Public Health England
Food Standards Agency
Food Standards Scotland
Food Standards Agency in Northern Ireland

Citation

The citation for this study is:

NatCen Social Research, MRC Elsie Widdowson Laboratory. (2017). National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Assessment of Dietary Sodium in Adults, 2011-2015. [data collection]. UK Data Service. SN: 8233, http://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-8233-1

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Subject Categories

Nutrition - Health
Social attitudes and behaviour - Society and culture
Social attitudes and behaviour - Society and culture

Abstract

Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.

The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) programme was initially established in 1992 and started off as a joint initiative between the then Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) and the Department of Health. The initial phase of surveys included four cross-sectional surveys which covered separate age groups: children and young people (see SNs 3481 and 4243); adults (SN 5140); and people aged 65 years and over (SN 4036). In 2008, a new continuous cross-sectional survey was started. The NDNS Rolling Programme (RP) provides the only source of high quality nationally representative data on the types and quantities of foods consumed by individuals, from which estimates of nutrient intake for the population are derived. Results are used by Government to develop policy and monitor progress on diet and nutrition objectives of UK Health Departments. The food consumption data are also used to assess exposure to chemicals in food, as part of the risk assessment and communication process in response to a food emergency or to inform negotiations on setting regulatory limits for contaminants.

The NDNS RP is funded by Public Health England (PHE), an executive agency of the Department of Health, and the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) and is carried out by a consortium comprising NatCen Social Research and the MRC Elsie Widdowson Laboratory (MRC EWL), formerly known as MRC Human Nutrition Research (HNR).

The aims of the NDNS RP include:
  • providing quantitative data on the food and nutrient intakes, sources of nutrients and nutritional status of the UK population;
  • providing information on trends in food consumption, nutrient intake and nutritional status in different age groups;
  • describing the characteristics of individuals with intakes of specific nutrients above/below the national average;
  • monitoring the extent to which the diets of population sub-groups vary from expert recommendations;
  • measuring blood/urine indices that provide evidence of nutritional status/dietary biomarkers;
  • monitoring the diet of the population to establish the extent to which it is adequately nutritious/varied; and
  • assessing total energy expenditure and physical activity levels/patterns in the study population.
Further information is available from the gov.uk National Diet and Nutrition Survey webpage.

The Assessment of Dietary Sodium in adults is designed to provide data to establish progress towards meeting the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended target reduction in the average salt intake of the population to no more than 6g per day. This figure has been adopted by the UK government as the recommended maximum salt intake for adults and children aged 11 years and over.

Dietary salt intake is assessed by measuring sodium excretion in 24-hour urine samples. To be usable in the final analysis the 24-hour collection has to be complete, which can be measured by analysis of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) excretion.

The Assessment of Dietary Sodium is an add-on study to the NDNS RP, and is funded by Public Health England (PHE), an executive agency of the Department of Health, and the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA). It is carried out by a consortium comprising NatCen Social Research (NatCen) and MRC Elsie Widdowson Laboratory (MRC EWL), formerly known as MRC Human Nutrition Research (HNR). Fieldwork in Northern Ireland was carried out by fieldworkers from the University of Ulster.

The NDNS RP includes four separate survey assessments of dietary sodium in adults; England 2011 sodium study, England 2014 sodium study, Scotland sodium study 2014 and the Northern Ireland sodium study 2015.

The aims of the Assessment of Dietary Sodium across all four surveys include:
  • assess urinary sodium excretion in adults aged 19 to 64 years by collecting and analysing 24-hour urine samples for a representative sample of the population;
  • estimate dietary salt intakes (g/day) from urinary sodium excretion;
  • conduct an analysis of trends in estimated salt intake (g/day) based on data collected from previous urinary sodium surveys (not Northern Ireland);
  • (for Scotland and Northern Ireland) statistically compare estimated salt intake with the estimate for the England 2014 sodium survey.
Further information can be found at the following GOV.UK webpages:
Main Topics:
The study collects information on average salt intake amongst men and women aged 19 to 64 in England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. This is done by analysing levels of sodium intake in 24-hour urine samples. Participants were also asked to take para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) tablets in order to verify completeness of the sample.

Coverage, universe, methodology

Dates of fieldwork: England sodium study 2011: July- December 2011. England sodium study 2014: May- September 2014. Scotland sodium study 2014: May-September 2014 (collected concurrently with the 2014 survey in England). Northern Ireland sodium study 2015: February-August 2015.
Country: England | Northern Ireland | Scotland
Spatial units: Government Office Regions
Observation units: Individuals
Kind of data: Numeric data
Individual (micro) level
Universe: National
Adults aged 19-64 in England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. A maximum of two adults per household were recruited with the aim of collecting 600 useable 24-hour urine samples in England and Scotland, and 550 useable samples in Northern Ireland.
Time dimensions: Repeated cross-sectional study
Sampling procedures: Multi-stage stratified random sample
Number of units: 3,335 cases
Method of data collection: Telephone interview; Clinical measurements
Weighting: Survey weight variable for urine included. See documentation for details.

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Administrative and access information

Date of release:
First edition: 07 September 2017
Copyright: Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland
Access conditions: The depositor has specified that registration is required and standard conditions of use apply. The depositor may be informed about usage. See terms and conditions for further information.
Availability: UK Data Service
Contact: Get in touch

Documentation

Title File Name Size (KB)
Protocol for 24-hour Urine Collection 8233_sodium_2011-15_24-hour_urine_protocol.pdf 371
Editor’s Code Sheet – Nurse CAPI 8233_sodium_2011-15_coding_and_editing_instructions.pdf 324
Derived Variables 8233_sodium_2011-15_derived_variable_list.pdf 301
Fieldworker Project Instructions 8233_sodium_2011-15_fieldworker_instructions.pdf 1988
Individual Case Form 8233_sodium_2011-15_individual_case_form_ni.pdf 496
Keying Instructions 8233_sodium_2011-15_keying_instructions.pdf 373
List of Variables for UK Data 8233_sodium_2011-15_list_of_variables.pdf 282
Nurse Project Instructions 8233_sodium_2011-15_nurse_instructions.pdf 1448
Telephone Unit Project Instructions 8233_sodium_2011-15_tel_unit_project_instructions_ni.pdf 616
User Guide 8233_sodium_2011-15_user_guide.pdf 364
Study information and citation UKDA_Study_8233_Information.htm 6
READ File read8233.htm 10

Publications

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By principal investigator(s):
Sadler, K., Nicholson, S., Steer, T., Gill, V., Bates, B., Tipping, S., Cox, L., Lennox, A. and Prentice, A. (2011) National Diet and Nutrition Survey - Assessment of dietary sodium in adults (aged 19 to 64 years) in England, 2011. Retrieved September 5th, 2017 from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/assessment-of-dietary-sodium-levels-among-adults-aged-19-64-in-england-2011

Bates, B., Cox, L., Maplethorpe, N., Mazumder, A., Nicholson, S., Page, P., Prentice, A., Rooney, K., Ziauddeen, N. and Swan, G. (2014) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: assessment of dietary sodium Adults (19 to 64 years) in England, 2014. Retrieved September 5th, 2017 from https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-assessment-of-dietary-sodium-in-adults-in-england-2014

Bates, B., Cox, L., Maplethorpe, N., Mazumder, A., Nicholson, S., Page, P., Prentice, A., Rooney, K., Ziauddeen, N., Swan, G. and Milne, A. (2014)
National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Assessment of dietary sodium Adults (19 to 64 years) in Scotland, 2014. Retrieved September 5th, 2017 from http://www.foodstandards.gov.scot/national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-assessment-dietary-sodium

Bates, B., Cox, L., Maplethorpe, N., Mazumder, A., Nicholson, S., Page, P., Prentice, A., Rooney, K., Ziauddeen, N., Swan, G. and Casey, J. (2015)National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Assessment of dietary sodium Adults (19 to 64 years) in Northern Ireland, 2015. Retrieved September 5th, 2017 from https://www.food.gov.uk/northern-ireland/nutritionni/national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-assessment-of-dietary-sodium
Gregory, J.R. et al. (1995) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: children aged 1 1/2 to 4 1/2 years, volume 1: report of the Diet and Nutrition survey, London: HMSO.

Hinds, K. and Gregory, J.R. (1995) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Children Aged 1 1/2 to 4 1/2 years, volume 2: report of the Dental Survey, London: HMSO.

White, A.J. and Davies, P.S.W. (1994) Feasibility study for the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Children Aged 1 1/2 to 4 1/2 Years, London: OPCS, NM22.

Davies, P.S.W. et al. (1994) 'Total energy expenditure and energy intake in the pre-school child: a comparison', British Journal of Nutrition, 72(1).

Steele, J.G. et al. (1998) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: people aged 65 years and over, volume 2: report of the Oral Health Survey, London: TSO.

Sheiham, A. et al. (1999) 'The impact of oral health on stated ability to eat certain foods: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Older People in Great Britain' Gerodontology, 16(1), July.

Gregory J. et al. (2000) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Young People Aged 4 to 18 Years, volume 1: report of the Diet and Nutrition Survey, London: TSO.

Walker A. (2000) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Young People Aged 4 to 18 Years, volume 2: report of the Oral Health Survey, London: TSO.

Walls, A.W.G. et al. (2000) 'Oral health and nutrition in older people' Journal of Public Health and Dentistry, 60(4), Fall.

Henderson L., Gregory J. and Swan G. (2002) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years: volume 1: types and quantities of foods consumed, London: TSO.

Henderson, L. et al. (2003) The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years: volume 2: energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat and alcohol intake, London: TSO.

Henderson, L. et al. (2003) The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years: volume 3: vitamin and mineral intake and urinary analytes, London: TSO.

Ruston, D. et al. (2004) The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years: volume 4: nutritional status (anthropometry and blood analytes), blood pressure and physical activity, London: TSO.

Hoare, J. et al. (2004) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years: volume 5: summary report, London: TSO.

Bates, B., Lennox, A., Prentice, A., Bates, C. and Swan, G. (2012) (eds.) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: headline results from Years 1, 2 and 3 (combined) of the Rolling Programme (2008/2009 – 2010/11), retrieved January 18, 2013, from https://www.wp.dh.gov.uk/transparency/files/2012/07/NDNS-Y3-report_All-TEXT-docs-combined.pdf

Taylor, C.M., Golding, J. and Emond, A.M. (2013) 'Intake of game birds in the UK: assessment of the contribution to the dietary intake of lead by women of childbearing age and children', Public Health Nutrition, doi: 10.1017/S1368980013000748

Bates, B., Cox, L., Nicholson, S., Page, P., Prentice, A., Steer, T. and Swan, G. (eds.) (2016) National Diet and Nutrition Survey results from Years 5 and 6 (combined) of the Rolling Programme (2012/2013 – 2013/2014), London: PHE. Retrieved February 22nd, 2017 from: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/ndns-results-from-years-5-and-6-combined

Coulthard, J.D., Pot, G.K. (2016) 'The timing of the evening meal: how is this associated with weight status in UK children?', British Journal of Nutrition, May, 115(9), pp.1616-22. Epub 2016 Mar 15. doi: 10.1017/S0007114516000635

See also the gov.uk main National Diet and Nutrition Survey webpage for relevant publications.

Resulting from secondary analysis:
Beard, T.C. et al. (1997) 'Association between blood pressure and dietary factors in the Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults' Archives of Internal Medicine, 157, January 27, pp.234-238.

Watt, R., Dykes, J. and Sheiham, A. (2000) 'Drink consumption in British pre-school children: relation to vitamin C, iron and calcium intakes' Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 13(1), pp.13-19.

Watt, R., Dykes, J. and Sheiham, A. (2000) 'Pre-school children's consumption of drinks: implications for dental health' Community Dental Health, 17(1), pp.8-13.

Gibson, S. (2003) 'Micronutrient intakes, micronutrient status and lipid profiles among young people consuming different amounts of breakfast cereals: further analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Young People Aged 4 to 18 Years', Public Health Nutrition, 6(8), pp.815-82.

Gibson, S., Lambert, J. and Neate, D. (2004) 'Associations between weight status, physical activity and consumption of biscuits, cakes and confectionery among young people in Britain' Nutrition Bulletin, 29, pp.301-309, British Nutrition Foundation.

Gibson, S. and Ashwell, M. (2004) 'Implications of low red meat consumption for iron status of young people in Britain', Nutrition and Food Science, 34(6), pp.253-259.

Rennie, K.L., Jebb, S.A., Wright, A. and Coward, W.A. (2005) 'Secular trends in under-reporting in young people', British Journal of Nutrition, 93, pp.241-247.

Jebb, S.A., Rennie, K.L. and Cole, T.J. (2003) 'Prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in Great Britain', Public Health Nutrition, 7, pp.461-465.

Rennie, K.L. and Jebb, S.A. (2003) 'Sedentary lifestyles are associated with being overweight and consumption of savoury snacks in young people (4-18 years)', Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62(83A).

Thane, C.W., Bolton-Smith, C. and Coward, W.A. (2006) 'Comparative dietary intake and sources of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) among British adults in 1986-7 and 2000-1', British Journal of Nutrition, 96, pp.1105-1115.

Thane, C.W., Bolton-Smith, C. and Coward, W.A. (2006) 'Plasma phylloquinone (vitamin K1) concentration and its relationship to intake in British adults aged 19-64 years', British Journal of Nutrition, 96, pp.1116-1124.

Thane, C.W. and Stephen, A.M. (2006) 'Day-to-day variation in food and nutrient intakes of British adults', Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 9(7A), p.102 (abstract).

Thane, C.W. and Stephen, A.M. (2006) 'Day-to-day variation in micronutrient intakes of British young people', Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 9(7A), p.102-103 (abstract).

Thane, C.W. et al. (2007) 'Comparative whole-grain intake of British adults in 1986-7 and 2000-1', British Journal of Nutrition, 97, pp.987-92.

Gibson, S. and Neate, D. (2007) 'Sugar intake, soft drink consumption and body weight among British children: further analysis of National Diet and Nutrition Survey data with adjustment for under-reporting and physical activity', International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 58(6), pp.445-460. (Users should note that the article abstract is viewable online free of charge, but access to the full article requires subscription).

Milton, J.E. et al. (2007) 'Relationship of glycaemic index with cardiovascular risk factors: analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey for people aged 65 and older', Public Health Nutrition, 10, pp.1321-35.

Mansfield, P.J. (2007) 'Fluoride consumption: much higher than we are told', British Medical Journal, Rapid Response, 5 October.

Swan, G.E. (2007) 'Fluoride intake in the National Diet and Nutrition Study', British Medical Journal, Rapid Response, 18 October.

Gibson, S. and Boyd, A. (2009) 'Associations between added sugars and micronutrient intakes and status: further analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Young People aged 4 to 18 years', British Journal of Nutrition, 101, pp.100–107. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114508981484.

Theobald, C., Chatterjee, A. and Horgan, G. (2012) 'A hierarchical Bayesian mixture model for repeated dietary records', Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50, pp.320-327. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2011.10.050

Timmins K.A., Hulme C. and Cade J.E. (2013) 'The monetary value of diets consumed by British adults: an exploration into sociodemographic differences in individual-level diet costs', Public Health Nutrition, Oct 29, pp.1-9.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980013002905 [Epub ahead of print]

Timmins, K.A., Hulme, C. and Cade, J. (2013) 'Household income as a measure of wealth: an appraisal of the benefits of equivalization in epidemiological research', European Journal of Epidemiology, 28, S136-S137.

Timmins, K.A. (2013) 'Dietary value for money? Investigating how the monetary value of diets in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey relate to dietary energy density', Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 72(OCE4), E295.

Timmins, K., Hulme, C. and Cade, J. (2013) 'Food budget apportioning and body mass index in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS): introducing a fresh approach to quantifying diet costs, using constituent food groups', and Timmins, K., Hulme, C. and Cade, J. (2013) 'Are cheap calories to blame? How the monetary cost of diets consumed by British adults relates to overweight and obesity', retrieved December 9, 2103 from http://secure.isbnpa.org/media/pdfs/abstracts/2013/ISBNPA2013_Abstract_Book.pdf

Timmins, K., Hulme, C. and Cade, J. (2013) 'Income and wealth: what should we be measuring? A comparison of the usefulness of household income versus equivalized household income in obesity research', Obesity Facts, 6(suppl 1), pp.226-227.

Green, R.E. and Pain, D.J. (2016) 'Risks of health effects to humans in the UK from ammunition-derived lead', in R.J. Delahay and C.J. Spray (eds.) Lead ammunition: understanding and minimising the risks to human and environmental health, Proceedings of the Oxford Lead Symposium, 10 December 2014, Edward Grey Institute, University of Oxford.

Carroll, H.A., Betts, J.A. and Johnson, L. (2016) 'An investigation into the relationship between plain water intake and glycated Hb (HbA1c): a sex-stratified, cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–2012)', British Journal of Nutrition. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516003688

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