UK Data Service data catalogue record for:
|Title:||Millennium Cohort Study: Third Survey, 2006|
|Series:||Millennium Cohort Study [Millennium Cohort Study, 2001-]|
|Depositor:||University of London. Institute of Education. Centre for Longitudinal Studies|
University of London. Institute of Education. Centre for Longitudinal Studies
National Centre for Social Research
Economic and Social Research Council
Office for National Statistics
Department for Education and Skills
Department for Work and Pensions
Department of Health
Welsh Assembly Government
Northern Ireland Executive
The Information Centre, Newcastle, Analytic and Services Branch, Department for Work and Pensions (formerly Department of Social Security) who: identified the main Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) sample from Child Benefit records, and ran an opt-out exercise for MCS1; provided a similar service to enable the inclusion in MCS2 of 'new families' (eligible for inclusion in MCS1 but not identfied in the records until after the completion of the first survey); and assisted with tracing families who had moved, for both MCS1 and MCS2.
Members of the Office for National Statistics (ONS) funding consortium provided advice as well as funding.
Individual academic advisers:
Specialist advisers: Julia Brannen, Tim Cole, Leon Feinstein, Charlie Owen.
Members of the Centre for Longitudinal Studies (CLS) internal team: Neville Butler, John Bynner, Elsa Ferri, Ian Plewis, Peter Shepherd and Kate Smith.
Collaborators on the MCS included: Mel Bartley, Helen Bedford, Dermot Bowler, Leslie Davidson, Carol Dezateux, Harvey Goldstein, Kath Kiernan, Yvonne Kelly, Michael Marmot, Barbara Maughan, Alison McFarlane, Catherine Peckham, Chris Power, Ingrid Schoon and Marjorie Smith.
Members of the Millennium Cohort Study Advisory Group, for advice on the form and content of MCS1, MCS2, MCS3, MCS4 and MCS5.
The citation for this study is:
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Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.Background:
The original objectives of the first MCS survey, as laid down in the proposal to the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) in March 2000, were:
Some studies based on sub-samples of MCS have also been conducted, including a study of MCS respondent mothers who had received assisted fertility treatment, conducted in 2003 (see SN 5559). Also, birth registration and maternity hospital episodes for the MCS respondents are held as a separate dataset (see SN 5614).
Users should note that the weighting section in the 'Guide to the Datasets' document recommends analysis in Stata, as SPSS is not currently able to weight the data using the survey design factors. The depositor is working on a solution for SPSS, but this is not yet available. A Stata version of the dataset is available for download by registered users, alongside the SPSS and tab-delimited versions.
MCS web pages:
Further information about the MCS can be found on the Centre for Longitudinal Studies website.
|While many of the areas covered in MCS3 built on the information already collected in MCS1 (age 9 months) and MCS2 (age 3 years), a number of new items were also included, such as the measurement of waist circumference. Information was gathered from the cohort members' parents or guardians for the main Parent Interview. In addition there were four cognitive assessments and three physical measurements of the cohort child, and a paper self-completion questionnaire for up to two older siblings aged 10-15 years.
For the sixth edition (December 2012), an updated version of the derived variables dataset was added to the study. Syntax was also run on the parent interview dataset to remove some variables that had been updated and moved to the derived variables dataset - see 'READ' file for details. A new Derived Variables User Guide and an updated Guide to the Datasets have been added to the documentation.
In August 2011, the Teacher Survey and Foundation Stage Profile data and documentation were removed from this study. They are now available in a separate study: SN 6847 - Millennium Cohort Study: Third Survey Teacher Survey and Foundation Stage Profile, 2006.
The files currently included in the MCS3 study comprise data from the main Parent Interview, the Household Grid, Child Measurement and Assessment and the Older Siblings questionnaire.
The Parent Interview file comprises data from the Main Respondent, Partner Respondent and Proxy Respondent questionnaires, which covered household information; family context; early education, schooling and childcare; child and family activities and child's behaviour; parenting activities; child's health; parent's health; employment, income and education; housing and local area; and other matters. Information on the cohort child's older siblings was also gathered from the parent/partner by self-completion questionnaire, but these data are contained in the 'Older Siblings file'.
The Household Grid file comprises demographic data on households and additional derived variables.
The Child Assessments and Measurements file includes cognitive and physical measurements, including the 'Story of Sally and Anne' cognitive protocol; the British Ability Scales covering Picture Similarities, Naming Vocabulary and Pattern Construction; height; weight; and waist circumference.
The Older Siblings file comprises data from the older siblings self-completion section of the main questionnaire, and from the self-completion questionnaire given to older siblings aged 10-15, which covered leisure time activities; extra activities at school; classes outside school; home life; health; school; behaviour; and perceptions of the local area.
|Dates of fieldwork:||The MCS3 main stage fieldwork commenced in England and Wales in January 2006, and in Scotland and Northern Ireland in April 2006.|
Government Office Regions
|Kind of data:||
Individual (micro) level
The sample population for MCS was drawn from all live births in the United Kingdom over 12 months (from 1 September 2000 in England and Wales and for 59 weeks from 22 November 2000 in Scotland and Northern Ireland).
Five waves have been conducted to date: MCS1 (age 9 months), MCS2 (age 3 years), MCS3 (age 5 years), MCS4 (age 7 years) and MCS5 (age 11 years).
Multi-stage stratified random sample
|Method of data collection:||
Face-to-face interview; Self-completion; Psychological measurements; Observation; Physical measurements
|Weighting:||Weighting used. See documentation for details.|
|ALCOHOL USE||ALLERGIES||ANTENATAL CARE|
|BANK ACCOUNTS||BIRTH RECORDS||BOTTLE-FEEDING|
|BREAST-FEEDING||BRITISH POLITICAL PARTIES||BRONCHITIS|
|CANCER||CENTRAL GOVERNMENT||CHILD BEHAVIOUR|
|CHILD CARE||CHILD DAY CARE||CHILD NUTRITION|
|CHILD PSYCHOLOGY||CHILD SUPPORT PAYMENTS||CHILDREN|
|CRIMINAL DAMAGE||DEBILITATIVE ILLNESS||DELIVERY (PREGNANCY)|
|DIABETES||DIGESTIVE SYSTEM DISORDERS||DIVORCE|
|DOMESTIC APPLIANCES||DOMESTIC RESPONSIBILITIES||DOMESTIC SERVICES|
|DOMESTIC VIOLENCE||ECONOMIC ACTIVITY||EDUCATION|
|EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT||EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND||EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENTS|
|EDUCATIONAL TESTS||EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT||EMOTIONAL STATES|
|EMPLOYEES||EMPLOYMENT HISTORY||ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION|
|FAMILY DISORGANIZATION||FAMILY PLANNING||FATHERS|
|FATIGUE (PHYSIOLOGY)||FERTILITY TREATMENT||FINANCIAL RESOURCES|
|FINANCIAL SUPPORT||FOSTER CHILDREN||FOSTER PARENTS|
|HEARING TESTS||HEATING SYSTEMS||HEIGHT (PHYSIOLOGY)|
|HOURS OF WORK||HOUSEHOLDS||HOUSING CONDITIONS|
|INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS||LANGUAGES USED AT HOME||LEARNING|
|LITERACY||MARITAL HISTORY||MARITAL STATUS|
|MARRIAGE||MATERNITY LEAVE||MATERNITY PAY|
|MIXED MARRIAGES||MOTHERS||MOTOR VEHICLES|
|NATIONAL ELECTIONS||NEIGHBOURS||NEONATAL DEATHS|
|NEWSPAPER READERSHIP||NOISE POLLUTION||NORTHERN IRELAND POLITICAL PARTIES|
|NUMERACY||ONE-PARENT FAMILIES||OPEN SPACES AND RECREATIONAL AREAS|
|OVERTIME||PARENT PARTICIPATION||PARENTAL ROLE|
|PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIP||PARENTS||PATERNITY LEAVE|
|PERSONAL CONTACT||POLITICAL ALLEGIANCE||POLITICAL INTEREST|
|POLITICAL PARTIES||PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS||PREGNANCY|
|PRIMARY EDUCATION||PRIVATE GARDENS||PUBLIC TRANSPORT|
|QUALIFICATIONS||RACIAL CONFLICT||READING (ACTIVITY)|
|READING SKILLS||REFUSE||RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION|
|RELIGIOUS ATTENDANCE||RELIGIOUS CONFLICT||RENTED ACCOMMODATION|
|RESIDENTIAL CHILD CARE||RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY||ROOMS|
|SMOKING||SOCIAL ATTITUDES||SOCIAL PROGRAMMES|
|SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS||SOCIAL SUPPORT||SPEECH|
|SPOUSE'S ECONOMIC ACTIVITY||SPOUSE'S EMPLOYMENT||SPOUSES|
|SUPERVISORY STATUS||TAX RELIEF||TELEPHONES|
|UNITED KINGDOM||VOTING BEHAVIOUR||VOTING|
|WORKING MOTHERS||WRITING SKILLS|
|Date of release:|
|First edition:||18 March 2008|
|Latest edition:||10 December 2012 (6th Edition)|
|Copyright:||Copyright University of London. Centre for Longitudinal Studies|
The depositor has specified that registration is required and standard conditions of use apply. The depositor may be informed about usage.
Additional special conditions of use also apply. See terms and conditions of access for further information.
|Availability:||UK Data Service|
|Contact:||Get in touch|
|Title||File Name||Size (KB)|
|CLS Confidentiality and Data Security Review||cls_confidentiality_and_data_security_review.pdf||40|
|MCS3 CAPI Questionnaire Documentation||mcs3_capi_questionnaire_documentation.pdf||629|
|MCS3 Cognitive and Physical Assessment CAPI Documentation||mcs3_cognitive_and_physical_assessment_capi_documentation.pdf||248|
|MCS3 Derived Variables Guide||mcs3_derived_variables.pdf||464|
|MCS3 Older Sibling Questionnaire||mcs3_older_sibling_pare_questionnaire.pdf||486|
|MCS3 'Sally Anne' Protocol||mcs3_sally_anne_protocol.pdf||58|
|MCS Guide to the Datasets (seventh edition)||mcs_guide_to_the_datasets_102012.pdf||1135|
|SOC2000 Codes (for reference only)||soc2000.pdf||84|
|Study information and citation||UKDA_Study_5795_Information.htm||7|
By principal investigator(s):
Publications based on the MCS can be found on the Centre for Longitudinal Studies website.
Resulting from secondary analysis:
Waldfogel, J. (2004) Social mobility, life chances and the early years, CASEpaper 88, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics.
McKay, S. (2004) 'Charting change in the devolved administrations: assessing the evidence base', Benefits, 12, pp.183-191.
Rowlingson, K. and McKay, S. (2005) 'Lone motherhood and socio-economic disadvantage: insights from quantitative and qualitative evidence', Sociological Review, 53(1), pp. 30-49.
Kiernan, K. (2005) Non-residential fatherhood and child involvement: evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study, CASEpaper 100, STICERD, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics.
Kiernan, K. and Pickett, K. (2006) 'Marital status disparities in maternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding and maternal depression', Social Science and Medicine, 63, pp.335-346.
Kiernan, K.E. and Huerta, M.C. (2008) 'Economic deprivation, maternal depression, parenting and children's cognitive and emotional development in early childhood' British Journal of Sociology, December, 59(4), pp.781-806.
Kiernan, K.E. and Mensah, F.K. (2009) 'Poverty, maternal depression, family status and children's cognitive and behavioural development in early childhood: a longitudinal study', Journal of Social Policy, 38(4) pp.569-588.
Pollet, T.V., Nelissen, M. and Nettle, D. (2009) 'Lineage based differences in grandparental investment: evidence from a large British cohort study', Journal of Biosocial Science, 41, pp.353-379.
Mensah, F.K and Kiernan, K.E. (2010) 'Gender differences in educational attainment: influences of the family environment', British Journal of Educational Research, 36(2), pp.239-260.
Emerson, E., Graham, H., McCulloch, A., Blacher, J., Hatton, C., and Llewellyn, G. (2009) 'The social context of parenting three year old children with developmental delay in the UK', Child: Health, Care, Development, 35(1), pp.63-70.
Emerson, E., and Einfeld, S. (2010) 'Emotional and behavioural difficulties in young children with and without developmental delay: a bi-national perspective' Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 51, pp.583-93.
Emerson, E., McCulloch, A., Graham, H., Blacher, J., Llewellyn, G., and Hatton, C. (2010) 'Socio-economic circumstances and risk of common psychiatric disorders among parents of young children with and without early cognitive delay in the UK', American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 115, pp.30-42.
Hatton, C., Emerson, E., Graham, H., Blacher, J., and Llewellyn, G. (2010) 'Changes in family composition and marital status in families with a young child with cognitive delay', Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 23, pp.14-26.
Jones, M., Blackaby, D. and Murphy, P. (2010) An investigation into regional differences in child health and cognitive function, report for the Welsh Assembly Government Economic Research Unit, Cardiff: Welsh Assembly Government.
Kiernan, K.E. and Mensah, F.K. (2010) 'Unmarried parenthood, family trajectories, parent and child well-being', in K. Hansen, H. Joshi and S. Dex (eds.) Children of the 21st century: from birth to age 5, London: Policy Press, Chapter 5, pp.75-92.
Mensah, F.K. and Kiernan, K.E. (2010) 'Parents' mental health and children's cognitive and social development', Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45(11), pp.1023-1035.
Nikiema, B., Spencer, N. and Seguin L. (2010) 'Poverty and chronic illness in early childhood: a comparison between the United Kingdom and Quebec', Pediatrics, originally published online Feb 1, 2010 (2010;125;e499-e507;). DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-0701.
Totsika, V., Hastings, R.P., Emerson, E, Berridge, D.M., and Lancaster, G.A. (2011) 'Behavior problems at five years of age and maternal mental health in autism and intellectual disability', Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, pp.1137-47.
Totsika, V., Hastings, R.P., Emerson, E., Lancaster, G.A. and Berridge, D M. (2011) 'A population-based investigation of behavioural and emotional problems and maternal mental health: associations with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability', Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 52, pp.91-99.
Tunstall, R., Lupton, R., Kneale, D. and Jenkins, A. (2011) Growing up in social housing in the New Millennium: housing, neighbourhoods and early outcomes for children born in 2000, CASEpaper 143, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics.
Mensah, F.K. and Kiernan, K.E. (2011) 'Maternal general health and children's cognitive development and behaviour in the early years: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study', Child Care, Health and Development, 37, pp.44-54.
Kiernan, K.E. and Mensah, F.K. (2011) 'Poverty, family resources and children's educational attainment: the mediating role of parenting', British Journal of Educational Research, 37(2), pp.317-336.
Pollet, T.V., Nelissen, M. and Nettle D. (2012) 'A 'gendered need' explanation does not
fully explain lineage based differences in grandparental investment found in a
large british cohort study', Journal of Biosocial Science, 44, pp.377-381.
Holford, A. (July 2012) Take-up of free school meals: price effects and peer effects, ISER Working Paper Series, No.2012-12.
Lakshman R., Zhang, J., Zhang, J., Koch, F.S., Marcus, C., Ludvigsson, J., Ong, K.K. and Sobko, T. (2012) 'Higher maternal education is associated with favourable growth of young children in different countries', Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, published online first: doi:10.1136/jech-2012-202021
Jackson, M., Mclanahan, S. and Kiernan, K. (2012) 'Nativity differences in mothers' health behaviors: a cross-national and longitudinal lens', The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 642(1), pp.192-218.
Jackson, M., Kiernan, K. and Mclanahan, S. (2012) 'Immigrant-native differences in child health: does maternal education narrow or widen the gap?', Journal of Child Development, 83(5), pp.1501-1509.
Prady, S.L., Kiernan, K., Bloor, K. and Pickett, K.E. (2012) 'Do risk factors for post-partum smoking vary according to marital status?', Maternal and Child Health, 16(7), pp.1364-1373.
Taulbut, M. and Walsh, D. (2013) Poverty, parenting and poor health: comparing early years' experiences in Scotland, England and three city regions, Glasgow Centre for Population Health, February.
Crawford, C., Dearden, L. and Greaves, E. (2013) When you are born matters: evidence for England, IFS Reports, R80, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/re.ifs.2013.0080. Retrieved August 19, 2013 from http://www.ifs.org.uk/comms/r80.pdf
Crawford, C., Dearden, L. and Greaves, E. (2013) Identifying the drivers of month of birth differences in educational attainment, IFS Working Papers, W13/09, May. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/wp.ifs.2013.1309. Retrieved August 19, 2013 from http://www.ifs.org.uk/wps/wp201309.pdf
Greaves, E. (2013) 'Parents' preferences for school attributes: a discrete choice model incorporating unobserved heterogeneity', paper presented at CMPO conference, London, Thursday 23 May 2013.
Greaves, E. (2013) 'Parents' preferences for school attributes: a discrete choice model incorporating unobserved heterogeneity', paper presented at ESPE conference, Aarhus, Denmark, Thursday 13 June 2013.
Greaves, E. (2013) 'Marriage, cohabitation and child outcomes', paper presented at Understanding Society conference, University of Essex, Thursday 25 July 2013.
Prady, S.L. and Kiernan, K.E. (2013) 'The effect of post-natal mental distress amongst Indian and Pakistani mothers living in England on children's behavioural outcomes', Child Care, Health and Development, 39(5), pp.710-721.
Holmes, J. and Kiernan, K. (2013) 'Persistent poverty and children's development in the early years of childhood', Policy and Politics, 41(1), pp.19-42. doi:10.1332/030557312x645810
Sellers, R., Maughan, B., Pickles, A., Thapar, A. and Collishaw, S. (2014) 'Trends in parent- and teacher-rated emotional, conduct and ADHD problems and their impact in prepubertal children in Great Britain: 1999–2008', Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12273.
Chiorri, C., Day, T. and Malmberg, L-E. (2014) 'An approximate measurement invariance approach to within-couple relationship quality', Frontiers in Quantitative Psychology and Measurement, (special issue edited by R. Van De Schoot, P. Schmidt and A. De Beuckelaer), 19 September. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00983
Retrieved October 21, 2014 from http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00983/abstract
Emerson, E., Blacher, J., Einfeld, S., Hatton, C., Robertson, J. and Stancliffe, R.J. (2014) 'Environmental risk factors associated with the persistence of conduct difficulties in children with intellectual disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders, Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35, pp.3508–3517.
Totsika, V, Hastings, R.P., Vagenas, D. and Emerson, E. (2014) 'Parenting and the behaviour problems of young children with an intellectual disability: Concurrent and longitudinal relationships in a population-based study, American Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 119, pp.422-435.
Totsika, V, Hastings, R.P., Emerson, E., Lancaster , G.A., Berridge, D.M., Vagenas, D. (2013) 'Is there a bidirectional relationship between maternal well-being and child behavior problems in autism spectrum disorders? Longitudinal analysis of a population-defined sample of young children, Autism Research, 6, pp.201-11.
Gore, N., Emerson, E. and Brady, S. (2015) 'Rates of breastfeeding and exposure to socio-economic adversity amongst children with intellectual disability', Research in Developmental Disabilities, 39, pp.12-19.
Hindmarsh, G., Llewellyn, G. and Emerson, E., (2015) 'Mothers with intellectual impairment and their 9 month old infants, Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 59, pp.541-550. doi: 10.1111/jir.12159
Totsika, V., Hastings, R.P., Emerson, E., Berridge, D., Lancaster, G.A. (2015) 'Prosocial skills in young children with autism, and their mothers’ psychological well-being: longitudinal relationships, Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, pp.13-14, 25-31. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2015.01.001
Bernardi, F. and Grätz, M. (2015) 'Making up for an unlucky month of birth in school: causal evidence on the compensatory advantage of family background in England', Sociological Science, 2, pp.235-251.
Cruise, S.M. and O'Reilly, D. (2015) 'Are the differences in adulthood ill-health across the North-South divide and between Scotland and England also evident in early childhood health indicators?', Social Science and Medicine, 130, pp.277-283. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.02.021 (ISSN 0277-9536) (IF 2.558)
Taylor-Robinson, D.C., Pearce, A., Whitehead, M., Smyth, R. and Law, C. (2015) 'Social inequalities in wheezing in children: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study', Eur Respir J, Dec 17. pii: ERJ-01117-2015. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01117-2015. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26677938
Martin, A., Booth, J.N., Young, D., Revie, M., Boyter, A.C., Johnston, B., Tomporowski, P.D. and Reilly, J.J. (2015) 'Associations between obesity and cognition in the pre-school years', Obesity, published online: 6 December 2015. doi 10.1002/oby.21329
Haux, T., Platt, L. and Rosenberg, R. (2015) Parenting and post-separation contact: what are the links?, CASEPaper 189, London School of Economics: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion. Retrieved May 16th, 2016 from http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/case/cp/casepaper189.pdf
Platt, L., Haux, T. and Rosenberg, R. (2015) Mothers, parenting and the impact of separation, CASEPaper 190, London School of Economics: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion. Retrieved May 16th, 2016 from http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/case/cp/casepaper190.pdf
Penny, A. (2016) Parentally bereaved children communicating their feelings: preliminary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study 5, London: National Children's Bureau Childhood Bereavement Network.
Kroll, M.E., Carson, C., Redshaw, M. and Quigley, M.A. (2016) 'Early father involvement and subsequent child behaviour at ages 3, 5 and 7 years: prospective analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study', PLoS ONE, 11(9), art. no. e0162339.
Grätz, M. (2015) Compensating disadvantageous life events: social origin differences in the effects of family and sibling characteristics on educational outcomes, Ph.D. Thesis, European University Institute, Florence. See http://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/38784
Emerson, E. (2015) The determinants of health inequities experienced by children with learning disabilities, London: Public Health England. See https://www.improvinghealthandlives.org.uk
Emerson, E., Hatton, C., Baines, S. and Robertson, J. (2016) 'Exposure to second hand tobacco smoke and smoking at age 11 among British children with and without intellectual disability', Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60, pp.274–281.
Emerson, E., Robertson, J., Baines, S. and Hatton, C. (2016) 'Predictors of self-reported alcohol use and attitudes toward alcohol among 11 year old British children with and without intellectual disability', Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60, pp.1212-1226.
Emerson, E., Robertson, J., Baines, S. and Hatton, C. (2016) 'Obesity in British children with and without intellectual disability: cohort study', BMC Public Health 16, p.644. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3309-1
Hindmarsh, G., Llewellyn, G. and Emerson, E. (2016) 'The social-emotional wellbeing of children of mothers with intellectual impairment: a population-based analysis', Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. doi:10.1111/jar.12306
Connelly, R. and Gayle, V. (2017) 'An investigation of the consistency of parental occupational information in UK birth records and a national social survey', European Sociological Review, see https://academic.oup.com/esr/article/2957093/An-Investigation-of-the-Consistency-of-Parental?searchresult=1