Catalogue

UK Data Service data catalogue record for:

Quarterly Labour Force Survey, July - September, 1995

Title details

SN: 5877
Title: Quarterly Labour Force Survey, July - September, 1995
Persistent identifier: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-5877-1
Series: Labour Force Survey [Quarterly Labour Force Survey, 1992-]
Depositor: Office for National Statistics. Social and Vital Statistics Division
Principal investigator(s): Office for National Statistics. Social and Vital Statistics Division
Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Central Survey Unit
Sponsor(s): Office for National Statistics
Northern Ireland. Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment
Other acknowledgements: Until 5 July 1995, the Labour Force Survey (LFS) was the responsibility of the Employment Department. On that date, the Employment Department was abolished and responsibility for the survey was passed to the Central Statistical Office (CSO). In April 1996, the Central Statistical Office and the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys amalgamated to become the Office for National Statistics (ONS).

Citation

The citation for this study is:

Office for National Statistics. Social and Vital Statistics Division, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Central Survey Unit. (2008). Quarterly Labour Force Survey, July - September, 1995. [data collection]. UK Data Service. SN: 5877, http://dx.doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-5877-1.

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Subject Categories

General - Employment and labour

Abstract

Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.


Background
The Labour Force Survey (LFS) is a unique source of information using international definitions of employment and unemployment and economic inactivity, together with a wide range of related topics such as occupation, training, hours of work and personal characteristics of household members aged 16 years and over. It is used to inform social, economic and employment policy. The LFS was first conducted biennially from 1973-1983. Between 1984 and 1991 the survey was carried out annually and consisted of a quarterly survey conducted throughout the year and a 'boost' survey in the spring quarter (data were then collected seasonally). From 1992 quarterly data were made available, with a quarterly sample size approximately equivalent to that of the previous annual data. The survey then became known as the Quarterly Labour Force Survey (QLFS). From December 1994, data gathering for Northern Ireland moved to a full quarterly cycle to match the rest of the country, so the QLFS then covered the whole of the UK (though some additional annual Northern Ireland LFS datasets are also held at the UK Data Archive). Further information on the background to the QLFS may be found in the documentation.

LFS Documentation
The documentation available from the Archive to accompany LFS datasets largely consists of the latest version of each user guide volume alongside the appropriate questionnaire for the year concerned. However, volumes are updated periodically by ONS, so users are advised to check the latest documents on the ONS Labour Force Survey - User Guidance pages before commencing analysis. This is especially important for users of older QLFS studies, where information and guidance in the user guide documents may have changed over time.

Additional data derived from the QLFS
The Archive also holds further QLFS series: Special Licence access and Secure Data Service access datasets (see below); household datasets (produced twice a year); two-quarter and five-quarter longitudinal datasets; quarterly, annual and ad hoc module datasets compiled for Eurostat; and some additional annual Northern Ireland datasets.

LFS move from seasonal to calendar quarters
In accordance with European Union regulations, the QLFS moved from seasonal (spring, summer, autumn, winter) quarters to calendar quarters (January-March, April-June, July-September, October-December) in 2006. Subsequently, calendar versions of all datasets in the main QLFS series were deposited and the previous seasonal datasets were removed from the Archive's catalogue at the request of ONS. However, some seasonal datasets may still exist for other LFS series, and ONS advise that, because of the method of construction and the weighting factors used in the datasets, comparison cannot be made between datasets of a calendar and seasonal nature. Time series and longitudinal analysis should only be conducted on datasets of the same type.

Disability variables from 2013 onwards - LFS and APS
ONS have provided some information on changes since 2013 to the disability variables available on the LFS and APS. The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) disabled (current disability) category within the historic DISCURR variable no longer corresponds with the advised legal definition of 'current disability'. DISCURR should only be available on LFS microdata from Spring 1998 to January-March 2013 (JM13); beyond that point users should ignore or delete it. In addition, the same 'DDA disabled (current disability)' category within variable DISCURR13 is also not the most appropriate variable to use because a) it is not comparable to the corresponding category in variable DISCURR due to question changes, and b) it no longer measures either the DDA definition of disability or the latest Equality Act definition of disability. However, DISCURR13 is available from the April-March 2013 quarter (AJ13) onwards and was introduced to demonstrate that the variables used to compile DISCURR had also changed from that quarter. Therefore, users are advised to use the disability variable DISEA from AJ13 onwards, which reflects the Equality Act 2010 legal definition of 'disabled', measured according to the GSS Harmonised Standard on health conditions and illnesses. The harmonised disability variables DISEA and DISCURR13 should both be present on the APS person microdata from April 2013-March 2014 (A13M14) onwards. This ensures that APS users have a complete 12 months' data on which to base analysis of the variables. DISCURR should only be present on APS microdata up to and including April 2012-March 2013 (A12M13).

Reducing disclosure risk in the QLFS

1. Special Licence QLFS data:
From July-September 2001, a Special Licence (SL) version of the QLFS data is also available in addition to the version made available under the standard End User Licence (EUL). The SL version contains extra variables, and therefore is subject to more restrictive access conditions. Prospective users of the SL version will need to complete an extra application form and demonstrate to the data owners exactly why they need access to the extra variables, in order to get permission to use that version (see 'Access' section below). Therefore, most users should order the standard version of the data. In order to help users choose the correct dataset, 'Special Licence Access' has been added to the dataset titles for the SL versions of the data. Typically, the extra non-EUL variables that can be found in the SL data, are: month and year of birth (variables dobm and doby); Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics Level 2 (NUTS2 - county-level); 4-digit Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) for occupation in apprenticeship, last job, second job and job made redundant from (soc2kap, soc2kl, soc2kr and soc2ks); unitary authority/local authority for place of residence and place of work (ua/la); urban/rural indicator (urind). Data for households of size 10 or above, which are excluded from the standard EUL data, can also be found in the SL data. With the introduction of SL data, some variables were correspondingly removed from the EUL datasets for 2001 onwards, including dobm, doby, nuts2, soc2kap, soc2kl, soc2kr and soc2ks. Users should note that these variables may still be referenced in the user guides without reference to restricted availability.

2. Secure Access QLFS data
More detailed QLFS datasets than the SL versions are also available, via the UK Data Service Secure Access system. These datasets include further additional, detailed variables not included in either the EUL or SL versions. They are subject to further access restrictions (see the Secure Lab webpages for details).

3. Changes to QLFS identifier variables:
Changes designed to improve confidentiality have been made to the identifier variables supplied with the main QLFS datasets from January-March 2011 onwards. Pseudonymised variables Casenop, Hserialp and Quotap are now included.

4. Further changes made to EUL data:
Disclosure control decisions made at the ONS requires consideration of the sample being less than 1% of the population). Accordingly, the following changes were introduced for EUL datasets in 2014/15 (and may affect back-series datasets from 2001 onwards):
  • Occupation (SOC10M) and industry (INDC07M) of main job remain available at 4-digit level, but Industry of second job (INDC07S) and last job (INDC07L) have been reduced to 3-digit level.

  • The variable GOVTOR (Government Office Region, with 20 response options) has been dropped, and GOVTOF2 (12-region level) has been retained. Region of last job (GORWKR and GORWKR2, covering 12 regions plus 'outside UK') has been retained.

  • The variable ADD has been dropped (this also affects datasets from 2001 onwards).

  • Users whose research is affected by these changes may need to use other variables or consider making an application for Special Licence data, where the more detailed variables have been retained.

    This study was deposited in 2008, as a result of the move from seasonal to calendar quarters for the QLFS, and the reweighting process to 2007-2008 population figures. It combines data from previously-available QLFS seasonal quarter datasets. The depositor has advised that small revisions to the data may have been made during this process, but they should not be significant.

    Variables Refwkd, Refwkm and Calweek amended:
    During November 2009, the ONS supplied syntax to resolve issues discovered in variables Refwkd, Refwkm (reference week month and date) and Calweek (calendar week), which affected Northern Ireland cases. The issues had arisen due to misalignment between week number and Refwkm/Refwkd, and had meant that when week number was used to create calendar quarters from seasonal quarters, for some cases Refwkm and Refwkd fell outside the target calendar quarter. The syntax supplied has been used to correct the issue; users whose analysis has been adversely affected should download a new version of the dataset.
    Main Topics:
    The QLFS questionnaire comprises a 'core' of questions which are included in every survey, together with some 'non-core' questions which vary from quarter to quarter.

    The questionnaire can be split into two main parts. The first part contains questions on the respondent's household, family structure, basic housing information and demographic details of household members. The second part contains questions covering economic activity, education and health, and also may include a few questions asked on behalf of other government departments (for example the Department for Work and Pensions and the Home Office). Until 1997, the questions on health covered mainly problems which affected the respondent's work. From that quarter onwards, the questions cover all health problems. Detailed questions on income have also been included in each quarter since 1993. The basic questionnaire is revised each year, and a new version published, along with a transitional version that details changes from the previous year's questionnaire.

    Coverage, universe, methodology

    Dates of fieldwork: July 1995 - September 1995
    Country: United Kingdom
    Spatial units: Government Office Regions
    Standard Statistical Regions
    Observation units: Individuals
    Families/households
    Universe: National
    Households
    All persons normally resident in private households in Great Britain and (from 1994) Northern Ireland.
    Time dimensions: Repeated cross-sectional study
    Data are collected quarterly
    Sampling procedures: Simple random sample
    Four sampling frames are used. See documentation for details.
    Method of data collection: Face-to-face interview; Telephone interview
    The first interview is conducted face-to-face, and subsequent interviews by telephone where possible.
    Weighting: Weighting used. See documentation for details.

    Thesaurus search on keywords

    View keywords... Hide keywords...
    ABSENTEEISMACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTADVANCED LEVEL EXAMINATIONS
    ADVANCED SUPPLEMENTARY LEVEL EXAMINATIONSAGEALLERGIES
    APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENTAPPOINTMENT TO JOBAPPRENTICESHIP
    ATTITUDESBONUS PAYMENTSBUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION COUNCIL AWARDS
    BUSINESSESCARDIOVASCULAR DISEASESCARE OF DEPENDANTS
    CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATIONCERTIFICATE OF SIXTH YEAR STUDIESCHILD BENEFITS
    CHILD CARECHILDRENCHRONIC ILLNESS
    CITIZENSHIPCITY AND GUILDS OF LONDON INSTITUTE AWARDSCOHABITATION
    COMPANIESCONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENTDEBILITATIVE ILLNESS
    DEGREESDEPRESSIONDIABETES
    DIGESTIVE SYSTEM DISORDERSDISABILITIESDISABLED PERSONS
    DISMISSALDISTANCE LEARNINGDOMESTIC RESPONSIBILITIES
    EARLY RETIREMENTECONOMIC ACTIVITYEDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
    EDUCATIONAL CERTIFICATESEDUCATIONAL COURSESEDUCATIONAL FEES
    EDUCATIONAL FINANCEEDUCATIONAL GRANTSEDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
    EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIESELDERLYEMPLOYEES
    EMPLOYER-SPONSORED TRAININGEMPLOYMENT HISTORYEMPLOYMENT PROGRAMMES
    EMPLOYMENT SERVICESEMPLOYMENTENDOCRINE DISORDERS
    EPILEPSYETHNIC GROUPSEVENING SCHOOLS
    EXAMINATIONSFAMILIESFAMILY MEMBERS
    FIELDS OF STUDYFULL-TIME EMPLOYMENTFURNISHED ACCOMMODATION
    GENDERGENERAL CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATIONGENERAL NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION
    GENERAL SCOTTISH VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONHEADS OF HOUSEHOLDHEALTH
    HEARING IMPAIRMENTSHIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONSHIGHER EDUCATION
    HIGHER NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMAHOME BUYINGHOME OWNERSHIP
    HOME-BASED WORKHOURS OF WORKHOUSEHOLDS
    HOUSING TENUREHOUSINGIMMIGRATION
    INCOMEINDUSTRIESINJURIES
    IN-SERVICE TRAININGINVESTMENT RETURNINVOLUNTARY SHORT TIME WORKING
    JOB CHANGINGJOB DESCRIPTIONJOB HUNTING
    JOB SEEKER'S ALLOWANCELABOUR DISPUTESLABOUR FORCE
    LANDLORDSLEARNING DISABILITIESLEAVE
    MANAGERSMARITAL STATUSMATERNITY LEAVE
    MATERNITY PAYMENTAL DISORDERSMETHODS OF PAYMENT
    MORTGAGESMUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASESNATIONAL IDENTITY
    NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONNATIONALITYNERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES
    OCCUPATIONAL PENSIONSOCCUPATIONAL QUALIFICATIONSOCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
    OCCUPATIONAL TRAININGOCCUPATIONSONE-PARENT FAMILIES
    ORDINARY LEVEL EXAMINATIONSORDINARY NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMAORGANIZATIONS
    OVERTIMEPART-TIME COURSESPART-TIME EMPLOYMENT
    PATERNITY LEAVEPLACE OF BIRTHPLACE OF RESIDENCE
    PRIVATE SECTORPUBLIC SECTORQUALIFICATIONS
    REBATESRECRUITMENTREDUNDANCY PAY
    REDUNDANCYRELIGIOUS AFFILIATIONRENTED ACCOMMODATION
    RESIDENTIAL MOBILITYRESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASESRETIREMENT
    ROYAL SOCIETY OF ARTS AWARDSSANDWICH COURSESSCOTTISH CERTIFICATE OF EDUCATION
    SCOTTISH VOCATIONAL EDUCATION COUNCIL AWARDSSCOTTISH VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONSEASONAL EMPLOYMENT
    SELF-EMPLOYEDSHARED HOME OWNERSHIPSICK LEAVE
    SICK PAYSICK PERSONSSKIN DISEASES
    SMALL BUSINESSESSOCIAL CLASSSOCIAL HOUSING
    SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITSSOCIAL SECURITY CONTRIBUTIONSSOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
    SPEECH IMPAIRMENTSSPOUSESSTATE RETIREMENT PENSIONS
    STUDENTSSUBSIDIARY EMPLOYMENTSUPERVISORS
    SUPERVISORY STATUSTAX RELIEFTAXATION
    TEACHER QUALIFICATIONSTEMPORARY EMPLOYMENTTERMINATION OF SERVICE
    TIED HOUSINGTRAINING CENTRESTRAINING COURSES
    TRAININGUNEMPLOYEDUNEMPLOYMENT
    UNFURNISHED ACCOMMODATIONUNITED KINGDOMUNWAGED WORKERS
    VISION IMPAIRMENTSVOCATIONAL EDUCATION CERTIFICATESVOCATIONAL EDUCATION
    WAGESWELSH (LANGUAGE)WORKING CONDITIONS
    WORKPLACE

    Administrative and access information

    Date of release:
    First edition: 15 July 2008
    Copyright: Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland
    Access conditions: The depositor has specified that registration is required and standard conditions of use apply. The depositor may be informed about usage. See terms and conditions of access for further information.
    Availability: UK Data Service
    Contact: Get in touch

    Documentation

    Title File Name Size (KB)
    User Guide Vol.1 - Background and Methodology background.pdf 3247
    User Guide Vol.5 - Classifications classifications.pdf 1352
    User Guide Vol.4 - Derived Variables derivedvariables2007.pdf 4330
    User Guide Vol.9 - Eurostat and Eurostat Derived Variables eurostat.pdf 983
    User Guide Vol.8 - Household and Family Data household.pdf 346
    LFS Reweighting Project 2007 Information lfs_2007_reweighting.pdf 29
    User Guide Vol.6 - Local Area Data localarea.pdf 515
    LFS User Guide Vol.2/2A - Questionnaire questionnaire1995.pdf 331
    User Guide Vol.3 - Details of LFS Variables 1992-2002 variabledetails1992-2002.pdf 2249
    User Guide Vol.3 - Details of LFS Variables 2007 variabledetails2007.pdf 1242
    User Guide Vol.7 - LFS Variables 1979-1991 variables1979_1991.pdf 727
    Study information and citation UKDA_Study_5877_Information.htm 7
    READ File read5877.htm 12
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    Publications

    View publications... Hide publications...

    By principal investigator(s):
    Employment Department (-July 1995), Employment Gazette, London: HMSO, monthly.

    Department for Education and Employment and Central Statistical Office (August-October 1995), Employment Gazette, monthly.

    Central Statistical Office (November 1995-March 1996) Labour Market Trends (incorporating Employment Gazette), monthly.

    Office for National Statistics (April 1996- ) Labour Market Trends (incorporating Employment Gazette), monthly. From 2001 onwards, this publication can be accessed online via the ONS Labour Market Trends Archive.

    Employment Department (1992-April 1995) Labour Force Survey Quarterly Bulletin.

    Central Statistical Office (July 1995-1996) Labour Force Survey Quarterly Bulletin, quarterly.

    Employment Department (1992-April 1995) Labour Force Survey Rapid Release, quarterly.

    Central Statistical Office (July 1995-1996) Labour Force Survey Rapid Release, quarterly.

    Office for National Statistics (1999) What exactly is the Labour Force Survey?, London: ONS.

    Madouros, V. (2006) Impact of the switch from seasonal to calendar quarters in the Labour Force Survey, London: ONS. Retrieved December 14, 2007 from: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/articles/labour_market_trends/CQ_article.pdf

    Resulting from secondary analysis:
    Blanchflower, D. and Oswald, A., (1993) International wage curves, CEP Discussion Paper No. 116, February.

    Arber, S. and Evandrou, M., (1993) `Mapping the territory ' IN S. Arber and M. Evandrou (eds.) Ageing, independence and the life course, Jessica Kingsley.

    Felstead, A., Green, F. (1993) Cycles of training? Evidence from the British recession of the early 1990s, Discussion Papers in Economics, No. 93/3, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.

    Meager. N., Court, J. and Moralee, J., (1994) Self-employment and the distribution of income, Institute of Manpower Studies Report No. 270.

    Peggs, K., Will you still feed me when I'm 64?, Paper for presentation to the British Sociological Association Annual Conference, University of Central Lancashire, March 28th to 31st, 1994.

    Glover, J. and Arber, S., Polarisation in mothers' employment : occupational class, age of youngest child, employment rights and work-hours, Paper presented to the Work, Employment and Society conference, University of Kent, UK, September 12-14 1994.

    Siora, G. and Pitcher, J., (1994) The nature, extent and demand for management skills in the East Midlands, Final Report, Institute for Employment Research, University of Warwick, October.

    Gregg, P. and Wadsworth, J., (1995) `A short history of labour turnover, job tenure, and job security, 1975-93' Oxford Review of Economic Policy 11(1), pp.73-90.

    Glover, J. and Arber, S., (1995) `Polarization in mothers' employment' Gender, Work and Organization 2(4), October, pp.165-179.

    Dex, S. and McCulloch, A. (1995) Flexible employment in Britain: a statistical analysis, Research Discussion Series No.15, Manchester: Equal Opportunities Commission.

    Glover, J., Smeaton, D. and Fielding, J., (1995) Gender and science, engineering and technology (SET) project, Memorandum submitted to the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology.

    Felstead, A., (1996) `Identifying gender inequalities in the distribution of vocational qualifications in the UK' Gender, Work and Organization 3(1), January, pp.38-50.

    Glover, J., Fielding, J., and Smeaton, D. (1996) `What happens to women and men with SET degrees?' Labour Market Trends 104(2), February, pp.63-67.

    Blundell, R., Magnac, T., and Meghir, C. (1996) Savings and labour market transitions, Working Paper No. W96/5, April, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.

    Machin, S., Ryan, A., and Van Reenen, J. (1996) Technology and changes in skill structure: evidence from an international panel of industries, Working Paper No. W96/6, April, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.

    Drinkwater, S. and Leslie, D. (1996) Adult earnings variables to the SARs: accounting for the ethnicity effect, Department of Economics, Manchester Metropolitan University.

    Employment Policy Institute (1996) `Introducing the employment audit' Employment Audit 1, Summer.

    Felstead, A. (1996) `Homeworking in Britain: the national picture in the mid-1990s' Industrial Relations Journal 27(3), September, pp.225-238.

    Felstead, A. (1996) `Training implications of regulation compliance and business cycles' in A. Booth and D.J. Snowner (eds.) Acquiring skills: market failures, their symptoms and policy responses, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Alpin, C., Shackleton, J.R. and Walsh, S. Employee self-financed training in Britain : some summary data from the Labour Force Survey, paper presented at the 8th Annual Conference of the European Association of Labour Economists. Education, Training and the Labour Market Research Group, University of Westminster, 1996.

    Shackleton, J.R. and Walsh, S. (1996) `The determinants of NVQ acquisition'Education Economics.

    Shackleton, J.R. and Walsh, S. (1996) The determinants of self-financed work-related education and training, Research Working Paper Series 2: No.13, Faculty of Business, Management and Social Studies, University of Westminster.

    Urwin, P. (1996) Older workers - an opportunity for London's businesses?, Labour Market Briefing, University of Westminster and London Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

    Urwin, P. and Alpin, C. (1996) Atypical employment in the capital, Labour Market Briefing, University of Westminster and London Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

    Smeaton, D., Glover, J. and Fielding, J. (1997) 'Recent trends in women's representation in science and engineering' Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 3(1).

    Dawe, F. and Knight, I. (1997) 'A study of proxy response on the Labour Force Survey' Survey Methodology Bulletin no. 40, p.30-36.

    Tate, P. (1997) 'Data on households and families from the Labour Force Survey (special report)' Labour Market Trends 105(3), March, p.89-98.

    Felstead, A., Krahn, H., Powell, M. (1997) Contrasting fortunes across the life course : non-standard work among women and men in Canada and the United Kingdom, CLMS Working Paper No.17, Centre for Labour Market Studies, Leicester University, May.

    Tate, P. Utilising longitudinally linked data from the Labour Force Survey, paper presented to the Labour Market Statistics User Group seminar, 8th July 1997.

    Gasson, R. (1997) Educational attainment levels of farmers, Department of Agricultural Economics and Business Management, Wye College, University of London, July.

    Brauns, H., Mueller, W. and Steinmann, S. (1997) Educational expansion and returns to education : a comparative study on Germany, France, the UK and Hungary, Arbeitspapiere ABI/Nr.23, Mannheimer Zentrum fuer Europaeische Sozial Forschung, Germany.

    Waldfogel, J., Higuchi, Y. and Abe, M. (1998) Maternity leave policies and women's employment after childbirth : evidence from the United States, Britain and Japan, CASEpaper CASE/3, January, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics.

    Urwin, P. (1998) London as a business centre - the skills and experience base, School of Economic and Business Studies, University of Westminster.

    Gasson, R. (1998) `Educational attainment levels of UK farmers - a review' European Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 4(4), pp.231-242.

    Canty, A.J. and Davison, A.C. (1998) Resampling-based variance estimation for labour force surveys, Department of Mathematics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland, June 9th.

    Shields, M.A. and Wheatley Price, S. (1998) 'The earnings of male immigrants in England : evidence from the quarterly LFS' Applied Economics, 30, pp.1157-1168.

    Papasolomontos, C. and Christie, T. (1998) 'Using national surveys : a review of secondary analyses with special reference to education' Educational Research, 40(3), Winter, pp.295-309.

    Dickens, R. and Machin, S. (1998) 'Minimum wage: maximum impact?' CentrePiece, 3(3), pp.10-13, Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics.

    Machin, S. and Gregg, P. (1998) Child development and success or failure in the youth labour market Discussion Paper 397, Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science.

    Urwin, P., Shackleton, J. and Kramer, S. (1998) 'People, skills and experience' IN London as an international business centre, Kogan Page, pp.53-77. ISBN 0749425431.

    Gasteen, A. and Houston, J. (1998) 'Income tax varying powers and the Scottish labour market' Fraser of Allender Quarterly Economic Commentary, 23(2).

    Gasteen, A., Asenova, D. and Houston, J. (1999) 'Implications of labour market restructuring on the Scottish Parliament's finances' Proceedings of 1st Scottish Trade Union Research Network Conference, July.

    Gasteen, A., Houston, J. and Asenova, D. (1999) 'Labour market flexibility and the public finances' IN L.Funk (ed), The economics and politics of the Third Way: essays in honour of Eric Owen Smith, LIT Verlag. ISBN 3825843408.

    Gasteen, A., Houston, J. and Asenova, D. (1999) 'Structural change in the Scottish labour market and the new parliament's income tax varying powers' Public Money and Management, 19(4), October-December.

    Felstead, A., Krahn, H. and Powell, M. (1999) 'Young and old at risk: comparative trends in 'non-standard' patterns of employment in Canada and the United Kingdom' International Journal of Manpower, 20(5), pp.277-296.

    Campbell, N. (1999) The decline of employment among older people in Britain, CASEpaper 19 (and CASEbrief 9), Centre for the Analysis of Social Exclusion, STICERD, London School of Economics.

    Labour Research Department London Allowance : further inquiries, paper presented to the Metropolitan Police Federation, June 1999.

    Manning, A. (1999) Pretty vacant: recruitment in low-wage labour markets, Discussion Paper 418, Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science.

    Taylor, P. and Urwin, P. (1999) 'Recent trends in the labour force participation of older people in the UK' The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance, 24(4), pp.551-579.

    Urwin, P. and Shackleton, J.R. (1999) 'Search methods and transitions into employment and inactivity' International Journal of Manpower, 20(3/4), pp.189-230.

    Alpin, C., Shackleton, J.R. and Urwin, P. (1999) Strength through diversity: ethnic minorities in London's economy, London Skills Forecasting Unit, London: London TEC Council.

    Fielding, J. and Glover, J. (1999) 'Women science graduates in Britain: the value of secondary analysis of large scale data sets' Work, Employment and Society, 13(2), pp.353-367.

    Glover, J. and Fielding, J. (1999) 'Women and the sciences in Britain: getting in?' Journal of Education and Work, 12(1), pp.57-73.

    Burgess, S. et al (1999) The class of '81: the effects of early-career unemployment on subsequent unemployment experiences, CASEpaper 32, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science.

    Green, F., McIntosh, S. and Vignoles, A. (1999) 'Overeducation' and skills - clarifying the concepts, Discussion Paper 435, Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science. ISBN 0753013061.

    Glover, J. (2000) Women and scientific employment, London: Macmillan. ISBN 0333683188.

    Carmichael, F. and Woods, R. (2000) 'Ethnic penalties in unemployment and occupational attainment: evidence for Britain' International Review of Applied Economics, 14(1).

    Felstead, A. et al (2000) A statistical portrait of working at home in the UK: evidence from the Labour Force Survey, Working Paper No.4, ESRC Future of Work Programme, Swindon: ESRC.

    Egerton, M. (2000) 'Monitoring contemporary student flows and characteristics: secondary analyses using the Labour Force Survey and the General Household Survey' Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A 163, Part 1, pp.63-80.

    Metcalf, D., Hansen, K. and Charlwood, A. (2001) 'Unions and the sword of justice: unions and pay systems, pay inequality, pay discrimination and low pay', offprint from WERS Dissemination Service.

    Lewis, R., McNabb, R., Robinson, H. and Wass, V. (2002) 'Court awards of damages for loss of future earnings: An empirical study and an alternative method of calculation', Journal of Law and Society, 29, pp.406-435.

    Lewis, R., McNabb, R. and Wass, V. (2002) 'A new way to assess damages for loss of future earnings', New Law Journal, pp.1042-3.

    Lewis, R., McNabb, R. and Wass, V. (2002) 'Methods for calculating damages for loss of future earnings', Journal of Personal Injury Litigation, 2, pp.151-165.

    Bailey, M. F. (2003) 'The labour market participation of Northern Ireland university students' Applied Economics, 35, pp.1345-1350.

    Felstead, A., Jewson, N. and Walters, S. (2003) The changing place of work, ESRC Future of Work Programme Working Paper No.28, Centre for Labour Market Studies, University of Leicester, 24 June.

    Lewis, R., McNabb, R. and Wass, V. (2003) 'The calculation of damages for personal injury in respect of loss of future earnings', Insurance Research and Practice, 18(1), pp.4-7.

    Lewis, R., McNabb, R., Robinson, H. and Wass, V. (2003) 'Loss of earnings following personal injury: Do the courts adequately compensate injured parties?', Economic Journal, 113 (491), pp.568-584.

    Chevalier, A. and Viitanen, T. (2003) 'The causality between female labour force participation and the supply of childcare', Applied Economics Letters, 9, pp.915-918.

    Chevalier, A. et al. (2004) 'Does education raise productivity, or just reflect it?', Economic Journal, 114, F499-F517.

    Chevalier, A. et al. (2005) 'Parental education, income and child's education', IZA, DP 1496.

    Felstead, A., Jewson, N. and Walters, S. (2005) 'The shifting location of work: new statistical evidence on the spaces and places of employment', Work, Employment and Society, 19(2), pp.415-431.

    Frijters, P., Shields, M.A. and Wheatley Price, S. (2005) 'Job search methods and their success: A comparison of immigrants and natives in the UK', Economic Journal, 115, pp.F359-F376.

    Frijters, P., Shields, M.A. and Wheatley Price, S. (2006) 'Investigating the quitting decision of nurses: Panel data evidence from the British National Health Service', Health Economics.

    Rigg, J. (2006) Labour market disadvantage amongst disabled people: a longitudinal perspective, CASEpaper 103, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics.

    Ma, A. H. Y. et al. (2006) 'Comparing the NES and LFS: an analysis of the differences between the data sets and their implications for the pattern of geographical pay in the UK', Regional Studies, 40(6), pp.645-665.

    Siebert, W.S., Addison J. and Bailey, R. (2006) 'The impact of deunionisation on earnings dispersion revisited', Research in Labor Economics, pp.337-364. (Uses 1995 QLFS and 1983 GHS).

    Elliott, R. F. et al. (2007) 'Geographically differentiated pay in the labour market for nurses', Journal of Health Economics, 26(1), pp.190-212.

    Sriskandarajah, D., Cooley, L. and Kornblatt, T. (2007) Britain's immigrants: an economic profile: a report for Class Films and Channel 4 'Dispatches', London: Institute for Public Policy Research.

    The LFS data have been used in constructing some of the UK labour market variables in the EU KLEMS database. Specific relevant documents include:

    Timmer, M. et al. (prepared on behalf of the EU KLEMS Consortium) (2007) EUKLEMS growth and productivity accounts: part 1: methodology. This publication is available from http://www.euklems.net/

    Timmer, M. et al. (prepared on behalf of the EU KLEMS Consortium) (2007) EUKLEMS growth and productivity accounts: part 2. This publication is available from http://www.euklems.net/

    Data from the Labour Force Survey, 2002: Teaching Dataset (SN 4736) has been used for the following textbook:
    Tarling, R. (2008) Statistical modelling for social researchers: principles and practice, Oxford: Routledge. ISBN: 978-0-415-44840-6.

    Longhi S., Nicoletti C. and Platt L. (2009) 'Decomposing wage gaps across the pay distribution: investigating inequalities of ethno-religious groups and disabled people', ISER Working Paper 2009-31.

    Longhi S. and Platt L. (2008) Pay gaps across equalities areas, EHRC Research Report 9. This publication is also available on the Equality and Human Rights Commission website.

    Sutherland, J. (2009) Monitoring and ealuating the performance of the labour market in Scotland, Centre for Public Policy for Regions Working Paper No. 18, Glasgow: University of Glasgow.

    Sutherland, J. (2009) Occupational change in Scotland, 2001-2008, Centre for Public Policy for Regions Working Paper No. 20, Glasgow: University of Glasgow.

    Sutherland, J. (2009) 'Occupational change in Scotland, 2001–2008', Scottish Affairs, 69, Autumn.

    Sutherland, J. (2010) 'The structure of employment and graduate employment in Scotland, 2001 -2009', The Fraser Economic Commentary, June.

    Sumption, M. and Somerville, W. (2010) The UK's new Europeans: progress and challenges five years after accession, Equality and Human Rights Commission/Migration Policy Institute. ISBN 978 1 84206 252 4. This publication is also available on the Equality and Human Rights Commission website.

    Davies, R. et al. (2011) An anatomy of economic inequality in Wales: A report prepared on behalf of the Wales Equality and Human Rights Commission, Wales Institute of Social and Economic Research, Data and Methods (WISERD) Research Reports Series RRS/002, University of Cardiff. This publication is also available on the WISERD website.

    Williams, B. (2011) A study of the UK labour market during the 2008/2009 UK recession, unpublished M.Sc. Economics dissertation, University of the West of England.

    Forth, J., Bryson, A., Humphris, A., Kleiner, M. and Koumenta, M.(2011) A review of occupational regulation and its impact, UK Commission for Employment and Skills Evidence Report No. 40.

    Urwin, P. and Buscha, F. (2012) Back to work: the role of small businesses in employment and enterprise, London: Federation of Small Businesses.

    Davies R. (2012) Secondary analysis of the 2009 and 2010 ESF Leavers Surveys, Merthyr: Welsh European Funding Office. Retrieved January 7, 2016, from http://gov.wales/docs/wefo/report/130607esfsurvey2009-2010furtheranalysisen.pdf

    Davies R., Makepeace G., Munday M., Winterbotham, M. and Williams G. (2013) The 2011 ESF Leavers Survey, Merthyr: Welsh European Funding Office. Retrieved January 7, 2016, from http://gov.wales/docs/wefo/report/1306072011esfsurveyreportmainen.pdf

    Davies R., Jones S, Munday M., Winterbotham, M. and Williams G. (2013) The 2012 ESF Leavers Survey, Merthyr: Welsh European Funding Office. Retrieved January 7, 2016, from http://gov.wales/docs/wefo/report/140127esfleaverssurvey2012reporten.pdf

    Blundell, R., Crawford, C. and Jin, W.(M.) (2013) What can wages and employment tell us about the UK's productivity puzzle?, IFS Working Papers, W13/11, June. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/wp.ifs.2013.1311.

    Crawford, C., Dearden, L. and Greaves, E. (2013) When you are born matters: evidence for England, IFS Reports, R80, May. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/re.ifs.2013.0080.

    Crawford, C., Dearden, L. and Greaves, E. (2013) The impact of age within academic year on adult outcomes, IFS Working Papers, W13/07, May. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/wp.ifs.2013.1307.

    Cribb, J., Hood, A., Joyce, R. and Phillips, D. (2013) Living standards, poverty and inequality in the UK, IFS Reports, R81. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/re.ifs.2013.0081.

    Phillips, D. (2013) Government spending on benefits and state pensions in Scotland: current patterns and future issues, IFS Briefing Note, BN139. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. doi: 10.1920/re.ifs.2013.0083.

    Amior, M., Crawford, R. and G. Tetlow (2013) The UK's public finances in the long run: the IFS model, IFS Working Paper W13/29, Institute for Fiscal Studies, November.

    Amior, M., Crawford, R. and G. Tetlow (2013) Fiscal sustainability of an independent Scotland, IFS Report R88, Institute for Fiscal Studies, November.

    Jones, M. and Wass, V.J. (2013) 'Understanding changing disability-related employment gaps in Britain 1998-2011', Work, Employment and Society, 27(6), pp.982-1003. doi: 10.1177/0950017013475372

    Buscha, F. and Urwin, P. (2013) 'Pathways to employment: the role of small businesses in employing the unemployed and inactive', presented at The Labour Force Survey: Past, Present and Future conference, 28th November 2013, BIS Conference Centre.

    Chevalier, A., Harmon, C., O'Sullivan, V. and Walker, I. (2013) 'The impact of parental income and education on the schooling of their children', IZA Journal of Labor Economics, 2(8). doi:10.1186/2193-8997-2-8

    Longhi S. and Taylor M. (2013) 'Employed and unemployed job seekers and the business cycle', Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, doi: 10.1111/obes.12029 Longer version: ISER Working Paper 2013-02, retrieved 17 February 2014 from https://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/publications/working-papers/iser/2013-02.pdf

    Longhi S., Taylor M. (2013) 'Occupational change and mobility among employed and unemployed job seekers', Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 60(1), pp.71-100.

    Longhi S., Nicoletti C., Platt L. (2013) 'Explained and unexplained wage gaps across the main ethno-religious groups in Great Britain', Oxford Economic Papers, 65(2), pp.471-493.

    Coleman, N; Sykes, W. and Groom, C. (2013) Barriers to employment and unfair treatment at work: a quantitative analysis of disabled people's experiences, Research Report no.88, Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission.

    Jones, M and Wass, V. (2013) 'Understanding changing disability-related employment gaps in Britain 1998-2011', Work, Employment and Society, 27(6), December, pp.982-1003.

    Bruzelius, C., Chase, E. and Seeleib-Kaiser, M. (2014) 'Semi-sovereign welfare states, social rights of EU migrant citizens and the need for strong state capacities', Social Europe Journal, Research paper, No.3.

    Longhi S. (2013) 'Impact of cultural diversity on wages, evidence from panel data', Regional Science and Urban Economics, 43(5), pp.797-807.

    Longhi S. and Taylor M. (2014) 'Employed and unemployed job seekers and the business cycle', Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 76(4), pp.463-483. A longer version is available as ISER Working Paper 2013-02

    Laurison, D. and Friedman, S. (2015) Introducing the class ceiling: social Mobility into Britain’s elite occupations, LSE Sociology Department Working Paper Series, LSE Academic Publishing: London School of Economics and Political Science.

    Simister, J. and Holmes, H.L. (2015) 'Discrimination against ethnic minorities in Britain: why did racial discrimination increase from 2010 to 2015?', SSRG International Journal of Economics and Management Studies (SSRG-IJEMS), 2(2). Retrieved April 15, 2015 from http://www.internationaljournalssrg.org/IJEMS/2015/Volume2-Issue2/IJEMS-V2I2P104.pdf

    Simister, J. (2015) 'UK Government from 2010 to 2015: a case study in management', International Journal of Research in Business Studies and Management, 2(4), April, pp.29-37. ISSN 2394-5931.

    Hewett, R. and Keil, S. (2015) Investigation of data relating to blind and partially sighted people in the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, Visual Impairment Centre for Teaching and Research, University of Birmingham.

    Hewett, R. and Keil, S. (2015) Secondary analysis of the Labour Force Survey (LFS) EU disability module, Visual Impairment Centre for Teaching and Research, University of Birmingham.

    Kenway, P., Bushe, S., Tinson, A. and Barry Born, T. (2015) Monitoring poverty and social exclusion in Scotland 2015, New Policy Institute. Retrieved July 20, 2015 from: http://npi.org.uk/files/6914/2736/4937/MPSE-scotland-full.pdf

    MacInnes, T., Aldridge, H., Bushe, S., Tinson, A., Barry Born, T. (2015) Monitoring poverty and social exclusion 2014, New Policy Institute. Retrieved July 20, 2015 from: http://npi.org.uk/files/8214/1658/1400/Monitoring_Poverty_and_Social_Exclusion_2014.pdf

    Baumberg, B., Jones, M. and Wass, V. J. (2015) 'Disability prevalence and disability-related employment gaps in the UK 1998-2012: different trends in different surveys?', Social Science and Medicine, published online 13 July 2015. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.07.012

    Vallance, P. (2015) 'Design employment in regional economies: industrial and occupational approaches', Local Economy, 30(6), pp.650-671.

    Davies R., Jones S., Roche, N., Munday M., Winterbotham, M. and Williams G. (2015) The 2013 ESF Leavers Survey’, Merthyr: Welsh European Funding Office. Retrieved January 7, 2016, from http://gov.wales/docs/wefo/publications/150701the2013esfleaverssurvey.pdf

    Parry, E. and Urwin, P. (2015) 'Age, generations and the labour market', in E. Parry (ed.) Age diversity in employment.

    Urwin, P. and Parry, E. (2016) 'Two decades of employee retention, tenure and turnover', in C. Cooper and G. Saridakis (eds.) (The research handbook on employee turnover, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. ISBN: 978-1-78471-114-6.

    Wakeling, P., Berrington, A. and Duta, A. (2015) Investigating an age threshold for independence at postgraduate level, Bristol: Higher Education Funding Council for England. Retrieved June 7th, 2016 from http://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/rereports/Year/2015/pgind/Title,105806,en.html

    Simister, J. (2016) 'UK and the European Union: exports of car components from 1994 to 2016', International Journal of Research in Business Studies and Management, 3(4), pp.49-58. Retrieved July 4th, 2016 from www.ijrbsm.org/pdf/v3-i4/5.pdf

    Simister, J. (2016) UK workers competing with other European Union countries: the importance of education, Work, Attitudes and Spending Working paper WAS-16-01, Manchester Metropolitan University. Retrieved July 4th, 2016 from http://www.was-survey.org/uploads/3/3/1/9/3319031/uk_citizens_needs_more_education.pdf

    Variables

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